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A competitive nonverbal false belief task for children and apes

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A competitive nonverbal false belief task for children and apes. / Krachun, Carla; Carpenter, Malinda; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael.

In: Developmental Science, Vol. 12, No. 4, 07.2009, p. 521-535.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Harvard

Krachun, C, Carpenter, M, Call, J & Tomasello, M 2009, 'A competitive nonverbal false belief task for children and apes', Developmental Science, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 521-535. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2008.00793.x

APA

Krachun, C., Carpenter, M., Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2009). A competitive nonverbal false belief task for children and apes. Developmental Science, 12(4), 521-535. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2008.00793.x

Vancouver

Krachun C, Carpenter M, Call J, Tomasello M. A competitive nonverbal false belief task for children and apes. Developmental Science. 2009 Jul;12(4):521-535. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2008.00793.x

Author

Krachun, Carla ; Carpenter, Malinda ; Call, Josep ; Tomasello, Michael. / A competitive nonverbal false belief task for children and apes. In: Developmental Science. 2009 ; Vol. 12, No. 4. pp. 521-535.

Bibtex - Download

@article{eded090426334c609fbe4b17aad7f806,
title = "A competitive nonverbal false belief task for children and apes",
abstract = "A nonverbal false belief task was administered to children (mean age 5 years) and two great ape species: chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus). Because apes typically perform poorly in cooperative contexts, our task was competitive. Two versions were run: in both, a human competitor witnessed an experimenter hide a reward in one of two containers. When the competitor then left the room (version A) or turned around (version B), the experimenter switched the locations of the containers. The competitor returned and reached with effort, but unsuccessfully, towards the incorrect container. Children displayed an understanding of the competitor's false belief by correctly choosing the other container to find the reward. Apes did not. However, in version A (but not version B), apes looked more often at the unchosen container in false belief trials than in true belief control trials, possibly indicating some implicit or uncertain understanding that needs to be investigated further.",
keywords = "CHIMPANZEES PAN-TROGLODYTES, TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY, INFANT CHIMPANZEES, GREAT APES, MIND, ATTRIBUTION, OTHERS, SEE, CONSPECIFICS, RECOGNITION",
author = "Carla Krachun and Malinda Carpenter and Josep Call and Michael Tomasello",
year = "2009",
month = jul,
doi = "10.1111/j.1467-7687.2008.00793.x",
language = "English",
volume = "12",
pages = "521--535",
journal = "Developmental Science",
issn = "1363-755X",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "4",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) - Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - A competitive nonverbal false belief task for children and apes

AU - Krachun, Carla

AU - Carpenter, Malinda

AU - Call, Josep

AU - Tomasello, Michael

PY - 2009/7

Y1 - 2009/7

N2 - A nonverbal false belief task was administered to children (mean age 5 years) and two great ape species: chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus). Because apes typically perform poorly in cooperative contexts, our task was competitive. Two versions were run: in both, a human competitor witnessed an experimenter hide a reward in one of two containers. When the competitor then left the room (version A) or turned around (version B), the experimenter switched the locations of the containers. The competitor returned and reached with effort, but unsuccessfully, towards the incorrect container. Children displayed an understanding of the competitor's false belief by correctly choosing the other container to find the reward. Apes did not. However, in version A (but not version B), apes looked more often at the unchosen container in false belief trials than in true belief control trials, possibly indicating some implicit or uncertain understanding that needs to be investigated further.

AB - A nonverbal false belief task was administered to children (mean age 5 years) and two great ape species: chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus). Because apes typically perform poorly in cooperative contexts, our task was competitive. Two versions were run: in both, a human competitor witnessed an experimenter hide a reward in one of two containers. When the competitor then left the room (version A) or turned around (version B), the experimenter switched the locations of the containers. The competitor returned and reached with effort, but unsuccessfully, towards the incorrect container. Children displayed an understanding of the competitor's false belief by correctly choosing the other container to find the reward. Apes did not. However, in version A (but not version B), apes looked more often at the unchosen container in false belief trials than in true belief control trials, possibly indicating some implicit or uncertain understanding that needs to be investigated further.

KW - CHIMPANZEES PAN-TROGLODYTES

KW - TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY

KW - INFANT CHIMPANZEES

KW - GREAT APES

KW - MIND

KW - ATTRIBUTION

KW - OTHERS

KW - SEE

KW - CONSPECIFICS

KW - RECOGNITION

U2 - 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2008.00793.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2008.00793.x

M3 - Article

C2 - 19635080

VL - 12

SP - 521

EP - 535

JO - Developmental Science

JF - Developmental Science

SN - 1363-755X

IS - 4

ER -

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