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A conceptual model of supra-glacial lake formation on debris-covered glaciers based on GPR facies analysis

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A conceptual model of supra-glacial lake formation on debris-covered glaciers based on GPR facies analysis. / Mertes, Jordan R.; Thompson, Sarah S.; Booth, Adam D.; Gulley, Jason D.; Benn, Douglas I.

In: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 42, No. 6, 03.05.2017, p. 903-914.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Harvard

Mertes, JR, Thompson, SS, Booth, AD, Gulley, JD & Benn, DI 2017, 'A conceptual model of supra-glacial lake formation on debris-covered glaciers based on GPR facies analysis', Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 903-914. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4068

APA

Mertes, J. R., Thompson, S. S., Booth, A. D., Gulley, J. D., & Benn, D. I. (2017). A conceptual model of supra-glacial lake formation on debris-covered glaciers based on GPR facies analysis. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 42(6), 903-914. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4068

Vancouver

Mertes JR, Thompson SS, Booth AD, Gulley JD, Benn DI. A conceptual model of supra-glacial lake formation on debris-covered glaciers based on GPR facies analysis. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. 2017 May 3;42(6):903-914. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4068

Author

Mertes, Jordan R. ; Thompson, Sarah S. ; Booth, Adam D. ; Gulley, Jason D. ; Benn, Douglas I. / A conceptual model of supra-glacial lake formation on debris-covered glaciers based on GPR facies analysis. In: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. 2017 ; Vol. 42, No. 6. pp. 903-914.

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@article{f713175ffee141fd9c453045a8c20e5d,
title = "A conceptual model of supra-glacial lake formation on debris-covered glaciers based on GPR facies analysis",
abstract = "Supra-glacial lakes and ponds can create hotspots of mass loss on debris-covered glaciers. While much research has been directed at understanding lateral lake expansion, little is known about the rates or processes governing lake deepening. To a large degree, this knowledge gap persists due to sparse observations of lake beds. Here we report on the novel use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys to simultaneously collect supra-glacial lake bathymetry and bottom composition data from Spillway Lake (surface area of 2.4 × 105m2; volume of 9.5 × 104m3), which is located in the terminus region of the Ngozumpa Glacier in the Khumbu region of the Nepal Himalaya. We identified two GPR bottom signals corresponding to two sedimentary facies of (1) sub-horizontal layered fine sediment drape and (2) coarse blocky diamict. We provide an understanding of the changes in subaqueous debris distribution that occur through stages of lake expansion by combining the GPR results with in situ observations of shoreline deposits matching the interpreted facies. From this, we present an updated conceptual model of supra-glacial lake evolution, with the addition of data on the evolving debris environment, showing how dominant depositional processes can change as lakes evolve from perched lakes to multi-basin base-level lakes and finally onto large moraine-dammed lakes. Throughout lake evolution, processes such as shoreline steepening, lakebed collapse into voids and conduit interception, subaerial and subaqueous calving and rapid areal expansion alter the spatial distribution and makeup of lakebed debris and sediments forcing a number of positive and negative feedbacks on lake expansion.",
keywords = "Debris-covered glaciers, Facies analysis, Ground penetrating radar, Supra-glacial lakes",
author = "Mertes, {Jordan R.} and Thompson, {Sarah S.} and Booth, {Adam D.} and Gulley, {Jason D.} and Benn, {Douglas I.}",
note = "Jordan R. Mertes acknowledges funding from Michigan Technological University and The Michigan Technological University 2016 Fall Finishing Fellowship. Sarah S. Thompson acknowledges funding from the University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS) and the European Commission FP7-MC-IEF.",
year = "2017",
month = may,
day = "3",
doi = "10.1002/esp.4068",
language = "English",
volume = "42",
pages = "903--914",
journal = "Earth Surface Processes and Landforms",
issn = "0197-9337",
publisher = "John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.",
number = "6",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) - Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - A conceptual model of supra-glacial lake formation on debris-covered glaciers based on GPR facies analysis

AU - Mertes, Jordan R.

AU - Thompson, Sarah S.

AU - Booth, Adam D.

AU - Gulley, Jason D.

AU - Benn, Douglas I.

N1 - Jordan R. Mertes acknowledges funding from Michigan Technological University and The Michigan Technological University 2016 Fall Finishing Fellowship. Sarah S. Thompson acknowledges funding from the University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS) and the European Commission FP7-MC-IEF.

PY - 2017/5/3

Y1 - 2017/5/3

N2 - Supra-glacial lakes and ponds can create hotspots of mass loss on debris-covered glaciers. While much research has been directed at understanding lateral lake expansion, little is known about the rates or processes governing lake deepening. To a large degree, this knowledge gap persists due to sparse observations of lake beds. Here we report on the novel use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys to simultaneously collect supra-glacial lake bathymetry and bottom composition data from Spillway Lake (surface area of 2.4 × 105m2; volume of 9.5 × 104m3), which is located in the terminus region of the Ngozumpa Glacier in the Khumbu region of the Nepal Himalaya. We identified two GPR bottom signals corresponding to two sedimentary facies of (1) sub-horizontal layered fine sediment drape and (2) coarse blocky diamict. We provide an understanding of the changes in subaqueous debris distribution that occur through stages of lake expansion by combining the GPR results with in situ observations of shoreline deposits matching the interpreted facies. From this, we present an updated conceptual model of supra-glacial lake evolution, with the addition of data on the evolving debris environment, showing how dominant depositional processes can change as lakes evolve from perched lakes to multi-basin base-level lakes and finally onto large moraine-dammed lakes. Throughout lake evolution, processes such as shoreline steepening, lakebed collapse into voids and conduit interception, subaerial and subaqueous calving and rapid areal expansion alter the spatial distribution and makeup of lakebed debris and sediments forcing a number of positive and negative feedbacks on lake expansion.

AB - Supra-glacial lakes and ponds can create hotspots of mass loss on debris-covered glaciers. While much research has been directed at understanding lateral lake expansion, little is known about the rates or processes governing lake deepening. To a large degree, this knowledge gap persists due to sparse observations of lake beds. Here we report on the novel use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys to simultaneously collect supra-glacial lake bathymetry and bottom composition data from Spillway Lake (surface area of 2.4 × 105m2; volume of 9.5 × 104m3), which is located in the terminus region of the Ngozumpa Glacier in the Khumbu region of the Nepal Himalaya. We identified two GPR bottom signals corresponding to two sedimentary facies of (1) sub-horizontal layered fine sediment drape and (2) coarse blocky diamict. We provide an understanding of the changes in subaqueous debris distribution that occur through stages of lake expansion by combining the GPR results with in situ observations of shoreline deposits matching the interpreted facies. From this, we present an updated conceptual model of supra-glacial lake evolution, with the addition of data on the evolving debris environment, showing how dominant depositional processes can change as lakes evolve from perched lakes to multi-basin base-level lakes and finally onto large moraine-dammed lakes. Throughout lake evolution, processes such as shoreline steepening, lakebed collapse into voids and conduit interception, subaerial and subaqueous calving and rapid areal expansion alter the spatial distribution and makeup of lakebed debris and sediments forcing a number of positive and negative feedbacks on lake expansion.

KW - Debris-covered glaciers

KW - Facies analysis

KW - Ground penetrating radar

KW - Supra-glacial lakes

U2 - 10.1002/esp.4068

DO - 10.1002/esp.4068

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85006097384

VL - 42

SP - 903

EP - 914

JO - Earth Surface Processes and Landforms

JF - Earth Surface Processes and Landforms

SN - 0197-9337

IS - 6

ER -

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