Skip to content

Research at St Andrews

Beaked whale strandings and naval exercises

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

DOI

Author(s)

Angela D'Amico, Robert C. Gisiner, Darlene R. Ketten, Jennifer A. Hammock, Chip Johnson, Peter L. Tyack, James Mead

School/Research organisations

Abstract

Mass strandings of beaked whales (family Ziphiidae) have been reported in the scientific literature since 1874. Several recent mass strandings of beaked whales have been reported to coincide with naval active sonar exercises. To obtain the broadest assessment of surface ship naval active sonar operations coinciding with beaked whale mass strandings, a list of global naval training and anti-submarine warfare exercises was compiled from openly available sources and compared by location and time with historic stranding records. This list includes activities of navies of other nations but emphasizes recent U.S. activities because of what is available in publicly accessible sources. Of 136 beaked whale mass stranding events reported from 1874 to 2004, 126 occurred between 1950 and 2004, after the introduction and implementation of modern, high-power mid-frequency active sonar (MFAS). Of these 126 reports, only two reported details on the use, timing, and location of sonar in relation to mass strandings. Ten other mass strandings coincided in space and time with naval exercises that may have included MFAS. An additional 27 mass stranding events occurred near a naval base or ship but with no direct evidence of sonar use. The remaining 87 mass strandings have no evidence for a link with any naval activity. Six of these 87 cases have evidence for a cause unrelated to active sonar. The large number of global naval activities annually with potential MFAS usage in comparison to the relative rarity of mass stranding events suggests that most MFAS operations take place with no reported stranding events and that for an MFAS operation to cause a mass stranding of beaked whales, a confluence of several risk factors is probably required. Identification of these risk factors will help in the development of measures to reduce the risk of sonar-related strandings.

Close

Details

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)452-472
Number of pages21
JournalAquatic Mammals
Volume35
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2009

    Research areas

  • Beaked whale, Mass stranding event, MFAS, Mid-frequency active sonar, Navy sonar, Stranding event, Ziphiidae

Discover related content
Find related publications, people, projects and more using interactive charts.

View graph of relations

Related by author

  1. Northern bottlenose whales in a pristine environment respond strongly to close and distant navy sonar signals

    Wensveen, P. J., Isojunno, S., Hansen, R. R., Von Benda-beckmann, A. M., Kleivane, L., Van Ijsselmuide, S., Lam, F. A., Kvadsheim, P. H., Deruiter, S. L., Curé, C., Narazaki, T., Tyack, P. L. & Miller, P. J. O., 20 Mar 2019, In : Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 286, 1899, 10 p., 20182592.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  2. Diving behavior and fine-scale kinematics of free-ranging Risso’s dolphins foraging in shallow and deep-water habitats

    Arranz, P., Benoit-Bird, K., Friedlaender, A. S., Hazen, E. L., Goldbogen, J. A., Stimpert, A. K., De Ruiter, S. L., Calambokidis, J., Southall, B., Fahlman, A. & Tyack, P. L., 12 Mar 2019, In : Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. 7, 15 p., 53.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  3. Understanding the population consequences of disturbance

    Pirotta, E., Booth, C. G., Costa, D. P., Fleishman, E., Kraus, S. D., Lusseau, D., Moretti, D., New, L. F., Schick, R. S., Schwarz, L. K., Simmons, S. E., Thomas, L., Tyack, P. L., Weise, M. J., Wells, R. S. & Harwood, J., 12 Sep 2018, In : Ecology and Evolution. Early View, 13 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

  4. Modeling tissue and blood gas kinetics in coastal and offshore common bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus

    Fahlman, A., Jensen, F., Tyack, P. L. & Wells, R., 17 Jul 2018, In : Frontiers in Physiology. 9, 13 p., 838.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  5. Exploring the ocean through soundscapes

    Miksis-Olds, J. L., Martin, B. & Tyack, P. L., 2 Mar 2018, In : Acoustics Today. 14, 1, p. 26-34 9 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Related by journal

  1. Can the camera lie? A non-permanent nick in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)

    Quick, N. J., Cheney, B., Thompson, P. M. & Hammond, P. S., 12 Mar 2017, In : Aquatic Mammals. 43, 2, p. 156-161

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  2. Incidence of Probable Vertebral Column Deformities in Norwegian and Icelandic Killer Whales (Orcinus orca)

    Jourdain, E. M., Samarra, F. I. P., Tavares, S. B. & Karoliussen, R. E., 13 Nov 2017, In : Aquatic Mammals. 43, 6, p. 682-690

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  3. Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) collision with a research vessel: accidental collision or deliberate ramming?

    Fulling, G. L., Jefferson, T. A., Fertl, D., Salinas Vega, J. C., Oedekoven, C. S. & Kuczaj II, S. A., 10 Jul 2017, In : Aquatic Mammals. 43, 4, p. 421-429

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  4. Cannibalism by a male grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) in the North Sea

    Bishop, A., Pomeroy, P. & Twiss, S., May 2016, In : Aquatic Mammals. 42, 2, p. 137-143 7 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  5. Play behaviour of wild grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) : effects of haulout group size and composition

    Survilienė, V., Rukšėnas, O. & Pomeroy, P., 20 May 2016, In : Aquatic Mammals. 42, 2, p. 144-161 18 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

ID: 255589011