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Developmental stage-dependent switching in the neuromodulation of vertebrate locomotor central pattern generator networks

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Neuromodulation plays important and stage‐dependent roles in regulating locomotor central pattern (CPG) outputs during vertebrate motor system development. Dopamine, serotonin and nitric oxide are three neuromodulators that potently influence CPG outputs in the development of Xenopus frog tadpole locomotion. However, their roles switch from predominantly inhibitory early in development to mainly excitatory at later stages. In this review, we compare the stage‐dependent switching in neuromodulation in Xenopus with other vertebrate systems, notably the mouse and the zebrafish, and highlight features that appear to be phylogenetically conserved.


Original languageEnglish
JournalDevelopmental Neurobiology
VolumeEarly View
Early online date20 Nov 2019
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 20 Nov 2019

    Research areas

  • Locomotion, CPG, Development, Spinal cord, Neuromodulation

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