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Dose-response relationships for the onset of avoidance of sonar by free-ranging killer whales

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Dose-response relationships for the onset of avoidance of sonar by free-ranging killer whales. / Miller, Patrick; Antunes, Ricardo Nuno; Wensveen, Paulus Jacobus; Samarra, Filipa Isabel Pereira; Alves, Ana Catarina De Carvalho; Tyack, Peter Lloyd; Kvadsheim, Petter H.; Kleivane, Lars; Lam, Frans-Peter A.; Ainslie, Michael A.; Thomas, Len.

In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 135, No. 2, 14.02.2014, p. 975-993.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Harvard

Miller, P, Antunes, RN, Wensveen, PJ, Samarra, FIP, Alves, ACDC, Tyack, PL, Kvadsheim, PH, Kleivane, L, Lam, F-PA, Ainslie, MA & Thomas, L 2014, 'Dose-response relationships for the onset of avoidance of sonar by free-ranging killer whales', Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 135, no. 2, pp. 975-993. https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4861346

APA

Miller, P., Antunes, R. N., Wensveen, P. J., Samarra, F. I. P., Alves, A. C. D. C., Tyack, P. L., Kvadsheim, P. H., Kleivane, L., Lam, F-P. A., Ainslie, M. A., & Thomas, L. (2014). Dose-response relationships for the onset of avoidance of sonar by free-ranging killer whales. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 135(2), 975-993. https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4861346

Vancouver

Miller P, Antunes RN, Wensveen PJ, Samarra FIP, Alves ACDC, Tyack PL et al. Dose-response relationships for the onset of avoidance of sonar by free-ranging killer whales. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 2014 Feb 14;135(2):975-993. https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4861346

Author

Miller, Patrick ; Antunes, Ricardo Nuno ; Wensveen, Paulus Jacobus ; Samarra, Filipa Isabel Pereira ; Alves, Ana Catarina De Carvalho ; Tyack, Peter Lloyd ; Kvadsheim, Petter H. ; Kleivane, Lars ; Lam, Frans-Peter A. ; Ainslie, Michael A. ; Thomas, Len. / Dose-response relationships for the onset of avoidance of sonar by free-ranging killer whales. In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 2014 ; Vol. 135, No. 2. pp. 975-993.

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@article{2adda7c801db4228b47b23225c386d3b,
title = "Dose-response relationships for the onset of avoidance of sonar by free-ranging killer whales",
abstract = "Eight experimentally controlled exposures to 1−2 kHz or 6−7 kHz sonar signals were conducted with four killer whale groups. The source level and proximity of the source were increased during each exposure in order to reveal response thresholds. Detailed inspection of movements during each exposure session revealed sustained changes in speed and travel direction judged to be avoidance responses during six of eight sessions. Following methods developed for Phase-I clinical trials in human medicine, response thresholds ranging from 94 to 164 dB re 1 μPa received sound pressure level (SPL) were fitted to Bayesian dose-response functions. Thresholds did not consistently differ by sonar frequency or whether a group had previously been exposed, with a mean SPL response threshold of 142 ± 15 dB (mean ± s.d.). High levels of between- and within-individual variability were identified, indicating that thresholds depended upon other undefined contextual variables. The dose-response functions indicate that some killer whales started to avoid sonar at received SPL below thresholds assumed by the U.S. Navy. The predicted extent of habitat over which avoidance reactions occur depends upon whether whales responded to proximity or received SPL of the sonar or both, but was large enough to raise concerns about biological consequences to the whales.",
author = "Patrick Miller and Antunes, {Ricardo Nuno} and Wensveen, {Paulus Jacobus} and Samarra, {Filipa Isabel Pereira} and Alves, {Ana Catarina De Carvalho} and Tyack, {Peter Lloyd} and Kvadsheim, {Petter H.} and Lars Kleivane and Lam, {Frans-Peter A.} and Ainslie, {Michael A.} and Len Thomas",
note = "The authors acknowledge the support of the MASTS pooling initiative (The Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland) in the completion of this study. MASTS is funded by the Scottish Funding Council (grant reference HR09011) and contributing institutions.",
year = "2014",
month = feb,
day = "14",
doi = "10.1121/1.4861346",
language = "English",
volume = "135",
pages = "975--993",
journal = "Journal of the Acoustical Society of America",
issn = "0001-4966",
publisher = "Acoustical Society of America",
number = "2",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) - Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - Dose-response relationships for the onset of avoidance of sonar by free-ranging killer whales

AU - Miller, Patrick

AU - Antunes, Ricardo Nuno

AU - Wensveen, Paulus Jacobus

AU - Samarra, Filipa Isabel Pereira

AU - Alves, Ana Catarina De Carvalho

AU - Tyack, Peter Lloyd

AU - Kvadsheim, Petter H.

AU - Kleivane, Lars

AU - Lam, Frans-Peter A.

AU - Ainslie, Michael A.

AU - Thomas, Len

N1 - The authors acknowledge the support of the MASTS pooling initiative (The Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland) in the completion of this study. MASTS is funded by the Scottish Funding Council (grant reference HR09011) and contributing institutions.

PY - 2014/2/14

Y1 - 2014/2/14

N2 - Eight experimentally controlled exposures to 1−2 kHz or 6−7 kHz sonar signals were conducted with four killer whale groups. The source level and proximity of the source were increased during each exposure in order to reveal response thresholds. Detailed inspection of movements during each exposure session revealed sustained changes in speed and travel direction judged to be avoidance responses during six of eight sessions. Following methods developed for Phase-I clinical trials in human medicine, response thresholds ranging from 94 to 164 dB re 1 μPa received sound pressure level (SPL) were fitted to Bayesian dose-response functions. Thresholds did not consistently differ by sonar frequency or whether a group had previously been exposed, with a mean SPL response threshold of 142 ± 15 dB (mean ± s.d.). High levels of between- and within-individual variability were identified, indicating that thresholds depended upon other undefined contextual variables. The dose-response functions indicate that some killer whales started to avoid sonar at received SPL below thresholds assumed by the U.S. Navy. The predicted extent of habitat over which avoidance reactions occur depends upon whether whales responded to proximity or received SPL of the sonar or both, but was large enough to raise concerns about biological consequences to the whales.

AB - Eight experimentally controlled exposures to 1−2 kHz or 6−7 kHz sonar signals were conducted with four killer whale groups. The source level and proximity of the source were increased during each exposure in order to reveal response thresholds. Detailed inspection of movements during each exposure session revealed sustained changes in speed and travel direction judged to be avoidance responses during six of eight sessions. Following methods developed for Phase-I clinical trials in human medicine, response thresholds ranging from 94 to 164 dB re 1 μPa received sound pressure level (SPL) were fitted to Bayesian dose-response functions. Thresholds did not consistently differ by sonar frequency or whether a group had previously been exposed, with a mean SPL response threshold of 142 ± 15 dB (mean ± s.d.). High levels of between- and within-individual variability were identified, indicating that thresholds depended upon other undefined contextual variables. The dose-response functions indicate that some killer whales started to avoid sonar at received SPL below thresholds assumed by the U.S. Navy. The predicted extent of habitat over which avoidance reactions occur depends upon whether whales responded to proximity or received SPL of the sonar or both, but was large enough to raise concerns about biological consequences to the whales.

U2 - 10.1121/1.4861346

DO - 10.1121/1.4861346

M3 - Article

VL - 135

SP - 975

EP - 993

JO - Journal of the Acoustical Society of America

JF - Journal of the Acoustical Society of America

SN - 0001-4966

IS - 2

ER -

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