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Earth's continental lithosphere through time

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Earth's continental lithosphere through time. / Hawkesworth, Chris J.; Cawood, Peter A.; Dhuime, Bruno; Kemp, Tony I. S.

In: Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 06.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Harvard

Hawkesworth, CJ, Cawood, PA, Dhuime, B & Kemp, TIS 2017, 'Earth's continental lithosphere through time', Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-earth-063016-020525

APA

Hawkesworth, C. J., Cawood, P. A., Dhuime, B., & Kemp, T. I. S. (2017). Earth's continental lithosphere through time. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-earth-063016-020525

Vancouver

Hawkesworth CJ, Cawood PA, Dhuime B, Kemp TIS. Earth's continental lithosphere through time. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 2017 Jun. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-earth-063016-020525

Author

Hawkesworth, Chris J. ; Cawood, Peter A. ; Dhuime, Bruno ; Kemp, Tony I. S. / Earth's continental lithosphere through time. In: Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 2017.

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@article{7134bcfd821641178abfd5e810f9dc80,
title = "Earth's continental lithosphere through time",
abstract = "The record of the continental lithosphere is patchy and incomplete; no known rock is older than 4.02 Ga, less than 5% of the rocks preserved are older than 3 Ga, and there is no recognizable mantle lithosphere from before 3 Ga. We infer that there was lithosphere before 3 Ga, and that ~ 3 Ga marks the stabilization of blocks of continental lithosphere that have since survived. This was linked to plate tectonics emerging as the dominant tectonic regime in response to thermal cooling, the development of more rigid lithosphere, and the recycling of water that may in turn have facilitated plate tectonics. A number of models, using different approaches, suggest that at 3 Ga the volume of continental crust was ~70% of its present day volume, and that this may be a minimum value. The continental crust before 3 Ga was on average more mafic than that generated subsequently, and this pre-3 Ga mafic new crust had fractionated Lu/Hf and Sm/Nd ratios as inferred for the sources of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) and later granites. The more intermediate composition of crust generated since 3 Ga is indicated by its higher Rb/Sr ratios. This change in composition was associated with an increase in crustal thickness, which resulted in more crust being emergent and available for weathering and erosion. This in turn led to an increase in the Sr isotope ratios of sea water, and in the draw down of CO2. Since 3 Ga, the preserved record of the continental crust is marked by global cycles of peaks and troughs of U-Pb crystallization ages, with the peaks of ages appearing to match periods of supercontinent assembly. There is increasing evidence that the peaks of ages represent enhanced preservation of magmatic rocks in periods leading up to and including continental collision, in the assembly of supercontinents. These are times of increased crustal growth because more of the crust that is generated is retained within the crust. The rate of generation of continental crust and mantle lithosphere may have remained relatively constant at least since 3 Ga, yet the rates of destruction of continental crust have changed with time. Only relatively small volumes of rock are preserved from before 3 Ga, and so it remains difficult to establish which of these are representative of global processes, and the extent to which the rock record before 3 Ga is distorted by particular biases.",
keywords = "Continental crust, Continental mantle lithosphere, Plate tectonics, Preservation bias, Early Earth",
author = "Hawkesworth, {Chris J.} and Cawood, {Peter A.} and Bruno Dhuime and Kemp, {Tony I. S.}",
note = "The authors acknowledge funding support from the Natural Environment Research Council (grants NE/J021822/1 and NE/K008862/1), the Leverhulme Trust (grant RPG-2015-422), and the Australian Research Council (FL160100168 to PAC, FT100100059 to TK). ",
year = "2017",
month = jun,
doi = "10.1146/annurev-earth-063016-020525",
language = "English",
journal = "Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences",
issn = "0084-6597",
publisher = "Annual Reviews Inc.",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) - Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - Earth's continental lithosphere through time

AU - Hawkesworth, Chris J.

AU - Cawood, Peter A.

AU - Dhuime, Bruno

AU - Kemp, Tony I. S.

N1 - The authors acknowledge funding support from the Natural Environment Research Council (grants NE/J021822/1 and NE/K008862/1), the Leverhulme Trust (grant RPG-2015-422), and the Australian Research Council (FL160100168 to PAC, FT100100059 to TK).

PY - 2017/6

Y1 - 2017/6

N2 - The record of the continental lithosphere is patchy and incomplete; no known rock is older than 4.02 Ga, less than 5% of the rocks preserved are older than 3 Ga, and there is no recognizable mantle lithosphere from before 3 Ga. We infer that there was lithosphere before 3 Ga, and that ~ 3 Ga marks the stabilization of blocks of continental lithosphere that have since survived. This was linked to plate tectonics emerging as the dominant tectonic regime in response to thermal cooling, the development of more rigid lithosphere, and the recycling of water that may in turn have facilitated plate tectonics. A number of models, using different approaches, suggest that at 3 Ga the volume of continental crust was ~70% of its present day volume, and that this may be a minimum value. The continental crust before 3 Ga was on average more mafic than that generated subsequently, and this pre-3 Ga mafic new crust had fractionated Lu/Hf and Sm/Nd ratios as inferred for the sources of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) and later granites. The more intermediate composition of crust generated since 3 Ga is indicated by its higher Rb/Sr ratios. This change in composition was associated with an increase in crustal thickness, which resulted in more crust being emergent and available for weathering and erosion. This in turn led to an increase in the Sr isotope ratios of sea water, and in the draw down of CO2. Since 3 Ga, the preserved record of the continental crust is marked by global cycles of peaks and troughs of U-Pb crystallization ages, with the peaks of ages appearing to match periods of supercontinent assembly. There is increasing evidence that the peaks of ages represent enhanced preservation of magmatic rocks in periods leading up to and including continental collision, in the assembly of supercontinents. These are times of increased crustal growth because more of the crust that is generated is retained within the crust. The rate of generation of continental crust and mantle lithosphere may have remained relatively constant at least since 3 Ga, yet the rates of destruction of continental crust have changed with time. Only relatively small volumes of rock are preserved from before 3 Ga, and so it remains difficult to establish which of these are representative of global processes, and the extent to which the rock record before 3 Ga is distorted by particular biases.

AB - The record of the continental lithosphere is patchy and incomplete; no known rock is older than 4.02 Ga, less than 5% of the rocks preserved are older than 3 Ga, and there is no recognizable mantle lithosphere from before 3 Ga. We infer that there was lithosphere before 3 Ga, and that ~ 3 Ga marks the stabilization of blocks of continental lithosphere that have since survived. This was linked to plate tectonics emerging as the dominant tectonic regime in response to thermal cooling, the development of more rigid lithosphere, and the recycling of water that may in turn have facilitated plate tectonics. A number of models, using different approaches, suggest that at 3 Ga the volume of continental crust was ~70% of its present day volume, and that this may be a minimum value. The continental crust before 3 Ga was on average more mafic than that generated subsequently, and this pre-3 Ga mafic new crust had fractionated Lu/Hf and Sm/Nd ratios as inferred for the sources of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) and later granites. The more intermediate composition of crust generated since 3 Ga is indicated by its higher Rb/Sr ratios. This change in composition was associated with an increase in crustal thickness, which resulted in more crust being emergent and available for weathering and erosion. This in turn led to an increase in the Sr isotope ratios of sea water, and in the draw down of CO2. Since 3 Ga, the preserved record of the continental crust is marked by global cycles of peaks and troughs of U-Pb crystallization ages, with the peaks of ages appearing to match periods of supercontinent assembly. There is increasing evidence that the peaks of ages represent enhanced preservation of magmatic rocks in periods leading up to and including continental collision, in the assembly of supercontinents. These are times of increased crustal growth because more of the crust that is generated is retained within the crust. The rate of generation of continental crust and mantle lithosphere may have remained relatively constant at least since 3 Ga, yet the rates of destruction of continental crust have changed with time. Only relatively small volumes of rock are preserved from before 3 Ga, and so it remains difficult to establish which of these are representative of global processes, and the extent to which the rock record before 3 Ga is distorted by particular biases.

KW - Continental crust

KW - Continental mantle lithosphere

KW - Plate tectonics

KW - Preservation bias

KW - Early Earth

UR - http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-earth-063016-020525

U2 - 10.1146/annurev-earth-063016-020525

DO - 10.1146/annurev-earth-063016-020525

M3 - Review article

JO - Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences

JF - Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences

SN - 0084-6597

ER -

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