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Effects of neonicotinoids on bees: an invalid experiment

Research output: Contribution to journalLetter



We use a recent study on the effects of neonicotinoids on bees as a concrete example to reinforce the advice of OEPP/EPPO (2010) that strong inference is impossible if there is no true replication and that analyses based on pseudoreplication are invalid.


Original languageEnglish
VolumeFirst Online
Early online date14 Nov 2017
StateE-pub ahead of print - 14 Nov 2017

    Research areas

  • Field experiments, Replication, Pseudoreplication, Neonicotinoid

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