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Effects of neonicotinoids on bees: an invalid experiment

Research output: Contribution to journalLetter


We use a recent study on the effects of neonicotinoids on bees as a concrete example to reinforce the advice of OEPP/EPPO (2010) that strong inference is impossible if there is no true replication and that analyses based on pseudoreplication are invalid.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-7
Issue number1
Early online date14 Nov 2017
StatePublished - Jan 2018

    Research areas

  • Field experiments, Replication, Pseudoreplication, Neonicotinoid

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