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Research at St Andrews

Experimental investigation of Doppler shift and infrasound generation during wave propagation within the bore of the Trombone during slide movement

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Jonathan Andrew Kemp, Amaya Lopez-Carromero, Alan Woolley, Murray Campbell

School/Research organisations


During glissando playing in the trombone the length of the approximately cylindrical slide section within the bore is altered while waves are propagating. Slide movements of 2 metres per second are not unusual. The simplest way to visualise the effect is in terms of the slide being represented by a moving reflector, resulting in a (small but measurable) Doppler shift in the wave coming from the mouthpiece before it arrives at the bell for instance. An additional effect is to be observed in terms of the volume of air within the instrument changing telescopically, leading to a localised change in DC pressure (and a resulting flow) which generates infrasound components within the bore and also impacts on the sound velocities for forward and backward going waves. Lastly there will be sections of bore with moving walls which could introduce additional mean flow effects and excitation of (mostly evanescent) transverse modes of vibration.

In this study experimental data is presented showing the pressures measured by microphones mounted in the mouthpiece, in the water key (in the slide section) and at the bell of a trombone while slide movements are performed. Some measurements were performed using a fixed excitation frequency provided by a loudspeaker mounted onto the mouthpiece. Moving the slide results in changes in both the amplitude and frequency of the signal being measured by microphones (in spite of the input signal being produced by the loudspeaker being fixed in frequency). Infrasound components were also detected inside the instrument bore. Frequency tracking of audio was combined with optical tracking of slide movement to provide evidence concerning the nature of the physics of wave propagation within the dynamically changing trombone bore and conclusions drawn concerning any implications for perception and synthesis.


Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of Vienna Talk 2015
Place of PublicationVienna, Austria
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - 16 Sep 2015
EventVienna Talk 2015 on Musical Acoustics - University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna, Vienna, Austria
Duration: 16 Sep 201519 Sep 2015


ConferenceVienna Talk 2015 on Musical Acoustics

    Research areas

  • trombone, Doppler, shift, infrasound, slide, generation, waveguide

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ID: 220959518