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Extreme diving of beaked whales

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DOI

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Extreme diving of beaked whales. / Tyack, Peter L.; Johnson, Mark; Soto, Natacha Aguilar; Sturlese, Albert; Madsen, Peter T.

In: Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 209, No. 21, 01.11.2006, p. 4238-4253.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harvard

Tyack, PL, Johnson, M, Soto, NA, Sturlese, A & Madsen, PT 2006, 'Extreme diving of beaked whales' Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 209, no. 21, pp. 4238-4253. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.02505

APA

Tyack, P. L., Johnson, M., Soto, N. A., Sturlese, A., & Madsen, P. T. (2006). Extreme diving of beaked whales. Journal of Experimental Biology, 209(21), 4238-4253. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.02505

Vancouver

Tyack PL, Johnson M, Soto NA, Sturlese A, Madsen PT. Extreme diving of beaked whales. Journal of Experimental Biology. 2006 Nov 1;209(21):4238-4253. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.02505

Author

Tyack, Peter L. ; Johnson, Mark ; Soto, Natacha Aguilar ; Sturlese, Albert ; Madsen, Peter T. / Extreme diving of beaked whales. In: Journal of Experimental Biology. 2006 ; Vol. 209, No. 21. pp. 4238-4253.

Bibtex - Download

@article{383720f998ab4f078448b4b8e1ee3a78,
title = "Extreme diving of beaked whales",
abstract = "Sound-and-orientation recording tags (DTAGs) were used to study 10 beaked whales of two poorly known species, Ziphius cavirostris (Zc) and Mesoplodon densirostris (Md). Acoustic behaviour in the deep foraging dives performed by both species (Zc: 28 dives by seven individuals; Md: 16 dives by three individuals) shows that they hunt by echolocation in deep water between 222 and 1885 m, attempting to capture about 30 prey/dive. This food source is so deep that the average foraging dives were deeper ( Zc: 1070 m; Md: 835 m) and longer (Zc: 58 min; Md: 47 min) than reported for any other air-breathing species. A series of shallower dives, containing no indications of foraging, followed most deep foraging dives. The average interval between deep foraging dives was 63 min for Zc and 92 min for Md. This long an interval may be required for beaked whales to recover from an oxygen debt accrued in the deep foraging dives, which last about twice the estimated aerobic dive limit. Recent reports of gas emboli in beaked whales stranded during naval sonar exercises have led to the hypothesis that their deep-diving may make them especially vulnerable to decompression. Using current models of breath-hold diving, we infer that their natural diving behaviour is inconsistent with known problems of acute nitrogen supersaturation and embolism. If the assumptions of these models are correct for beaked whales, then possible decompression problems are more likely to result from an abnormal behavioural response to sonar.",
keywords = "beaked whale, Ziphius cavirostris, Mesoplodon densirostris, diving, foraging, aerobic dive limit, NORTHERN ELEPHANT SEALS, GAS-BUBBLE LESIONS, BREATH-HOLD DIVES, WEDDELL SEALS, ZIPHIUS-CAVIROSTRIS, OPTIMAL ALLOCATION, MIROUNGA-ANGUSTIROSTRIS, MESOPLODON-DENSIROSTRIS, PHYSETER-MACROCEPHALUS, NITROGEN TENSIONS",
author = "Tyack, {Peter L.} and Mark Johnson and Soto, {Natacha Aguilar} and Albert Sturlese and Madsen, {Peter T.}",
year = "2006",
month = "11",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1242/jeb.02505",
language = "English",
volume = "209",
pages = "4238--4253",
journal = "Journal of Experimental Biology",
issn = "0022-0949",
publisher = "Company of Biologists Ltd",
number = "21",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) - Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - Extreme diving of beaked whales

AU - Tyack, Peter L.

AU - Johnson, Mark

AU - Soto, Natacha Aguilar

AU - Sturlese, Albert

AU - Madsen, Peter T.

PY - 2006/11/1

Y1 - 2006/11/1

N2 - Sound-and-orientation recording tags (DTAGs) were used to study 10 beaked whales of two poorly known species, Ziphius cavirostris (Zc) and Mesoplodon densirostris (Md). Acoustic behaviour in the deep foraging dives performed by both species (Zc: 28 dives by seven individuals; Md: 16 dives by three individuals) shows that they hunt by echolocation in deep water between 222 and 1885 m, attempting to capture about 30 prey/dive. This food source is so deep that the average foraging dives were deeper ( Zc: 1070 m; Md: 835 m) and longer (Zc: 58 min; Md: 47 min) than reported for any other air-breathing species. A series of shallower dives, containing no indications of foraging, followed most deep foraging dives. The average interval between deep foraging dives was 63 min for Zc and 92 min for Md. This long an interval may be required for beaked whales to recover from an oxygen debt accrued in the deep foraging dives, which last about twice the estimated aerobic dive limit. Recent reports of gas emboli in beaked whales stranded during naval sonar exercises have led to the hypothesis that their deep-diving may make them especially vulnerable to decompression. Using current models of breath-hold diving, we infer that their natural diving behaviour is inconsistent with known problems of acute nitrogen supersaturation and embolism. If the assumptions of these models are correct for beaked whales, then possible decompression problems are more likely to result from an abnormal behavioural response to sonar.

AB - Sound-and-orientation recording tags (DTAGs) were used to study 10 beaked whales of two poorly known species, Ziphius cavirostris (Zc) and Mesoplodon densirostris (Md). Acoustic behaviour in the deep foraging dives performed by both species (Zc: 28 dives by seven individuals; Md: 16 dives by three individuals) shows that they hunt by echolocation in deep water between 222 and 1885 m, attempting to capture about 30 prey/dive. This food source is so deep that the average foraging dives were deeper ( Zc: 1070 m; Md: 835 m) and longer (Zc: 58 min; Md: 47 min) than reported for any other air-breathing species. A series of shallower dives, containing no indications of foraging, followed most deep foraging dives. The average interval between deep foraging dives was 63 min for Zc and 92 min for Md. This long an interval may be required for beaked whales to recover from an oxygen debt accrued in the deep foraging dives, which last about twice the estimated aerobic dive limit. Recent reports of gas emboli in beaked whales stranded during naval sonar exercises have led to the hypothesis that their deep-diving may make them especially vulnerable to decompression. Using current models of breath-hold diving, we infer that their natural diving behaviour is inconsistent with known problems of acute nitrogen supersaturation and embolism. If the assumptions of these models are correct for beaked whales, then possible decompression problems are more likely to result from an abnormal behavioural response to sonar.

KW - beaked whale

KW - Ziphius cavirostris

KW - Mesoplodon densirostris

KW - diving

KW - foraging

KW - aerobic dive limit

KW - NORTHERN ELEPHANT SEALS

KW - GAS-BUBBLE LESIONS

KW - BREATH-HOLD DIVES

KW - WEDDELL SEALS

KW - ZIPHIUS-CAVIROSTRIS

KW - OPTIMAL ALLOCATION

KW - MIROUNGA-ANGUSTIROSTRIS

KW - MESOPLODON-DENSIROSTRIS

KW - PHYSETER-MACROCEPHALUS

KW - NITROGEN TENSIONS

U2 - 10.1242/jeb.02505

DO - 10.1242/jeb.02505

M3 - Article

VL - 209

SP - 4238

EP - 4253

JO - Journal of Experimental Biology

T2 - Journal of Experimental Biology

JF - Journal of Experimental Biology

SN - 0022-0949

IS - 21

ER -

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ID: 17105086