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Fabrication of a high-quality, porous, surface-confined covalent organic framework on a reactive metal surface

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Christian Rodriguez Larrea, Christopher John Baddeley

School/Research organisations


A major goal of heterogeneous catalysis is to optimize catalytic selectivity. Selectivity is often limited by the fact that most heterogeneous catalysts possess sites with a range of reactivities, resulting in the formation of unwanted by-products. The construction of surface-confined covalent organic frameworks (sCOFs) on catalytically active surfaces is a desirable strategy, as pores can be tailored to operate as catalytic nanoreactors. Direct modification of reactive surfaces is impractical, because the strong molecule–surface interaction precludes monomer diffusion and formation of extended architectures. Herein, we describe a protocol for the formation of a high-quality sCOF on a Pd-rich surface by first fabricating a porous sCOF through Ullmann coupling on a Au-rich bimetallic surface on Pd(111). Once the sCOF has formed, thermal processing induces a Pd-rich surface while preserving the integrity of the sCOF architecture, as evidenced by scanning tunneling microscopy and titration of Pd sites through CO adsorption.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)971–975
Issue number7
Early online date5 Feb 2016
Publication statusPublished - 4 Apr 2016

    Research areas

  • Alloys, Nanostructures, Scanning probe microscopy, Surface chemistry, Thin films

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