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Faithful replication of foraging techniques along cultural transmission chains by chimpanzees and children

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Author(s)

Victoria Horner, Andrew Whiten, Emma Flynn, Frans B M de Waal

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Abstract

observational studies of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have revealed population-specific differences in behavior, thought to represent cultural variation. Field studies have also reported behaviors indicative of cultural learning, such as close observation of adult skills by infants, and the use of similar foraging techniques within a population over many generations. Although experimental studies have shown that chimpanzees are able to learn complex behaviors by observation, it is unclear how closely these studies simulate the learning environment found in the wild. In the present study we have used a diffusion chain paradigm, whereby a behavior is passed from one individual to the next in a linear sequence in an attempt to simulate intergenerational transmission of a foraging skill. Using a powerful three-group, two-action methodology, we found that alternative methods used to obtain food from a foraging device ("lift door" versus "slide door") were accurately transmitted along two chains of six and five chimpanzees, respectively, such that the last chimpanzee in the chain used the same method as the original trained model. The fidelity of transmission within each chain is remarkable given that several individuals in the no-model control group were able to discover either method by individual exploration. A comparative study with human children revealed similar results. This study is the first to experimentally demonstrate the linear transmission of alternative foraging techniques by non-human primates. Our results show that chimpanzees have a capacity to sustain local traditions across multiple simulated generations.

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Details

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13878-13883
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume103
Issue number37
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 12 Sep 2006

    Research areas

  • culture, diffusion chain, social learning, tradition, WILD CHIMPANZEES, PAN-TROGLODYTES, TOOL USE, SOCIAL TRANSMISSION, CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEES, ENEMY RECOGNITION, CAPUCHIN MONKEYS, SEX-DIFFERENCES, HOMO-SAPIENS, NORWAY RATS

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