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Glacier calving rates due to subglacial discharge, fjord circulation, and free convection

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Glacier calving rates due to subglacial discharge, fjord circulation, and free convection. / Schild, K. M.; Renshaw, C. E.; Benn, D. I.; Luckman, A.; Hawley, R. L.; How, P.; Trusel, L.; Cottier, F. R.; Pramanik, A.; Hulton, N. R. J.

In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Earth Surface, Vol. Early View, 15.09.2018.

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Schild, KM, Renshaw, CE, Benn, DI, Luckman, A, Hawley, RL, How, P, Trusel, L, Cottier, FR, Pramanik, A & Hulton, NRJ 2018, 'Glacier calving rates due to subglacial discharge, fjord circulation, and free convection' Journal of Geophysical Research - Earth Surface, vol. Early View. https://doi.org/10.1029/2017JF004520

APA

Schild, K. M., Renshaw, C. E., Benn, D. I., Luckman, A., Hawley, R. L., How, P., ... Hulton, N. R. J. (2018). Glacier calving rates due to subglacial discharge, fjord circulation, and free convection. Journal of Geophysical Research - Earth Surface, Early View. https://doi.org/10.1029/2017JF004520

Vancouver

Schild KM, Renshaw CE, Benn DI, Luckman A, Hawley RL, How P et al. Glacier calving rates due to subglacial discharge, fjord circulation, and free convection. Journal of Geophysical Research - Earth Surface. 2018 Sep 15;Early View. https://doi.org/10.1029/2017JF004520

Author

Schild, K. M. ; Renshaw, C. E. ; Benn, D. I. ; Luckman, A. ; Hawley, R. L. ; How, P. ; Trusel, L. ; Cottier, F. R. ; Pramanik, A. ; Hulton, N. R. J. / Glacier calving rates due to subglacial discharge, fjord circulation, and free convection. In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Earth Surface. 2018 ; Vol. Early View.

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@article{769cb14cc39c4f1d9a93e8938a12c43b,
title = "Glacier calving rates due to subglacial discharge, fjord circulation, and free convection",
abstract = "Tidewater glacier calving provides the most direct mechanism of ice transfer from land to the ocean. However, the physical melt processes influencing calving remain challenging to constrain. In this study we focus on calving rates at Kongsbreen, a tidewater glacier in Svalbard, due to three mechanisms of submarine melt: 1) free convection, 2) horizontal fjord circulation, and 3) meltwater discharge. To calculate an overall calving rate, we measure glacier velocity and terminus change using Sentinel imagery. We calculate free convection, fjord circulation, and meltwater discharge calving using mooring data for mid-fjord ocean temperature (30-80 m depth), reanalysis results for meltwater runoff, and georectified time-lapse imagery to track icebergs and infer surface circulation. Results show the total glacier calving rate is highly correlated with ocean temperature during the 2016 melt season. When runoff was present, we found that subglacial discharge accounted for calving rates an order of magnitude greater than the maximum calving rates assigned to the other two melting mechanisms combined. Further, subglacial discharge at Kongsbreen was more efficient in inducing calving later in the season than earlier in the season, implying that the increase in ocean temperatures, the timing of meltwater discharge within a melt season, and/or the development of discrete meltwater exit channels are critical components to calving rates. As the recent atmospheric warming trend and subsequent increase in meltwater discharge is expected to continue, it is essential to understand the processes contributing to an increase in glacier calving and incorporate these processes into predictive models.",
keywords = "Calving, Tidewater glacier, Iceberg, Submarine melt, Time-lapse camera, Svalbard",
author = "Schild, {K. M.} and Renshaw, {C. E.} and Benn, {D. I.} and A. Luckman and Hawley, {R. L.} and P. How and L. Trusel and Cottier, {F. R.} and A. Pramanik and Hulton, {N. R. J.}",
note = "We would like to thank the New Hampshire Space Grant Consortium (award # NNX15AH79H) for the training grant to fund KMS; the ConocoPhillips-Ludin Northern Area Program (under the CRIOS project) and the Dartmouth Graduate Studies Travel fund for their financial support to conduct fieldwork and travel for data dissemination; the Polar Geospatial Center for arranging access to the WorldView-2 imagery; the UK Natural Environmental Research Council (NERK) Oceans 2025 and Northern Sea Program for mooring work support, with further support from the Research Council of Norway (NFR) projects: Circa (214271), Cleopatra (178766), Cleopatra II (216537), and Marine Night (226471); Alex Hart and the GeoSciences Mechanical Workshop at the University of Edinburgh for manufacturing the time-lapse camera enclosure that was used in this study; Colin Oriffiths for overseeing the collection of mooring data in Kongsfjorden since 2002; ESA for processing the Copernicus Sentinel data (2016).",
year = "2018",
month = "9",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1029/2017JF004520",
language = "English",
volume = "Early View",
journal = "Journal of Geophysical Research - Earth Surface",
issn = "2169-9011",
publisher = "John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) - Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - Glacier calving rates due to subglacial discharge, fjord circulation, and free convection

AU - Schild, K. M.

AU - Renshaw, C. E.

AU - Benn, D. I.

AU - Luckman, A.

AU - Hawley, R. L.

AU - How, P.

AU - Trusel, L.

AU - Cottier, F. R.

AU - Pramanik, A.

AU - Hulton, N. R. J.

N1 - We would like to thank the New Hampshire Space Grant Consortium (award # NNX15AH79H) for the training grant to fund KMS; the ConocoPhillips-Ludin Northern Area Program (under the CRIOS project) and the Dartmouth Graduate Studies Travel fund for their financial support to conduct fieldwork and travel for data dissemination; the Polar Geospatial Center for arranging access to the WorldView-2 imagery; the UK Natural Environmental Research Council (NERK) Oceans 2025 and Northern Sea Program for mooring work support, with further support from the Research Council of Norway (NFR) projects: Circa (214271), Cleopatra (178766), Cleopatra II (216537), and Marine Night (226471); Alex Hart and the GeoSciences Mechanical Workshop at the University of Edinburgh for manufacturing the time-lapse camera enclosure that was used in this study; Colin Oriffiths for overseeing the collection of mooring data in Kongsfjorden since 2002; ESA for processing the Copernicus Sentinel data (2016).

PY - 2018/9/15

Y1 - 2018/9/15

N2 - Tidewater glacier calving provides the most direct mechanism of ice transfer from land to the ocean. However, the physical melt processes influencing calving remain challenging to constrain. In this study we focus on calving rates at Kongsbreen, a tidewater glacier in Svalbard, due to three mechanisms of submarine melt: 1) free convection, 2) horizontal fjord circulation, and 3) meltwater discharge. To calculate an overall calving rate, we measure glacier velocity and terminus change using Sentinel imagery. We calculate free convection, fjord circulation, and meltwater discharge calving using mooring data for mid-fjord ocean temperature (30-80 m depth), reanalysis results for meltwater runoff, and georectified time-lapse imagery to track icebergs and infer surface circulation. Results show the total glacier calving rate is highly correlated with ocean temperature during the 2016 melt season. When runoff was present, we found that subglacial discharge accounted for calving rates an order of magnitude greater than the maximum calving rates assigned to the other two melting mechanisms combined. Further, subglacial discharge at Kongsbreen was more efficient in inducing calving later in the season than earlier in the season, implying that the increase in ocean temperatures, the timing of meltwater discharge within a melt season, and/or the development of discrete meltwater exit channels are critical components to calving rates. As the recent atmospheric warming trend and subsequent increase in meltwater discharge is expected to continue, it is essential to understand the processes contributing to an increase in glacier calving and incorporate these processes into predictive models.

AB - Tidewater glacier calving provides the most direct mechanism of ice transfer from land to the ocean. However, the physical melt processes influencing calving remain challenging to constrain. In this study we focus on calving rates at Kongsbreen, a tidewater glacier in Svalbard, due to three mechanisms of submarine melt: 1) free convection, 2) horizontal fjord circulation, and 3) meltwater discharge. To calculate an overall calving rate, we measure glacier velocity and terminus change using Sentinel imagery. We calculate free convection, fjord circulation, and meltwater discharge calving using mooring data for mid-fjord ocean temperature (30-80 m depth), reanalysis results for meltwater runoff, and georectified time-lapse imagery to track icebergs and infer surface circulation. Results show the total glacier calving rate is highly correlated with ocean temperature during the 2016 melt season. When runoff was present, we found that subglacial discharge accounted for calving rates an order of magnitude greater than the maximum calving rates assigned to the other two melting mechanisms combined. Further, subglacial discharge at Kongsbreen was more efficient in inducing calving later in the season than earlier in the season, implying that the increase in ocean temperatures, the timing of meltwater discharge within a melt season, and/or the development of discrete meltwater exit channels are critical components to calving rates. As the recent atmospheric warming trend and subsequent increase in meltwater discharge is expected to continue, it is essential to understand the processes contributing to an increase in glacier calving and incorporate these processes into predictive models.

KW - Calving

KW - Tidewater glacier

KW - Iceberg

KW - Submarine melt

KW - Time-lapse camera

KW - Svalbard

U2 - 10.1029/2017JF004520

DO - 10.1029/2017JF004520

M3 - Article

VL - Early View

JO - Journal of Geophysical Research - Earth Surface

T2 - Journal of Geophysical Research - Earth Surface

JF - Journal of Geophysical Research - Earth Surface

SN - 2169-9011

ER -

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ID: 255554054