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Research at St Andrews

Gog of Magog: Reuse of Scripture and Compositional Technique in Ezekiel 38-39

Research output: Book/ReportBook


School/Research organisations


The Gog Oracles’ (Ezek 38-39) reuse of antecedent scripture is crucial to their purpose and meaning. The pattern of continuous allusion in the Gog Oracles reflects something more than a writer saturated with scriptural idiom. It is a practice of disciplined and deliberate reference to select texts on select themes. William Tooman shows that recognizing the volume and density of scriptural reuse within the Gog Oracles is indispensible for understanding these chapters’ role within the book, its composition, and its place within Second Temple literature. A close examination of the methods, effects, and motives of scriptural reuse that are evident within the Gog oracles reveals that these chapters are a unified composition that was crafted as a supplement to a book of Ezekiel, in order to fill gaps in the book‘s message and to harmonize the book with other traditions of prophetic revelation.


Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationTubingen
PublisherMohr Siebeck
Number of pages354
ISBN (Print)978-3-16-150857-8
StatePublished - 2011

Publication series

NameForschungen zum Alten Testament 2. Reiche
PublisherMohr Siebeck
ISSN (Print)1611-4914

    Research areas

  • Ezekiel, Inner-biblical intepretation, Gog, Ezekiel 38-39, scripturalization, redaction, composition, eschatology, Prophets, Hebrew Bible

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  1. Reading the Hebrew Bible in Jewish and Christian antiquity

    Tooman, W. A. 8 Oct 2018 Ancient Readers and Their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity. Allen, G. V. & Dunn, J. A. (eds.). Leiden; Boston: Brill, (Ancient Judaism and early Christianity; vol. 107)

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  2. Isaiah in Aramaic

    Tooman, W. A. 2018 (In preparation) The Oxford Handbook of Isaiah. Tiemeyer, L-S. (ed.). Oxford University Press

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  3. Scriptural Reuse in Ancient Jewish Literature: Comments and Reflections on the State of the Art

    Tooman, W. A. 2018 (In preparation) Methodology in the Use of the Old Testament in the New. Allen, D. & Smith, S. (eds.). Bloomsbury T&T Clark

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  4. Standards of (In)coherence in Ancient Jewish Literature

    Tooman, W. A. (ed.) & Teeter, D. A. (ed.) 2018 (In preparation) Mohr Siebeck. (Hebrew Bible and Ancient Israel)

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  5. The Servant and Servants in Targum Jonathan Isaiah

    Tooman, W. A. 2018 (In preparation) in Isaiah’s Servant(s) and the Exegetical Origins of Early Jewish and Christian Identity. Stromberg, J. & Lyons, M. (eds.). Mohr Siebeck, (Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament)

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ID: 5308977