Skip to content

Research at St Andrews

Heteroatom-Modulated Switching of Photocatalytic Hydrogen and Oxygen Evolution Preferences of Anatase TiO2 Microspheres

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle



Gang Liu, Jian Pan, Lichang Yin, John T. S. Irvine, Feng Li, Jun Tan, Philip Wormald, Hui-Ming Cheng

School/Research organisations


Understanding and manipulating the two half-reactions of photoinduced electron reduction and hole oxidation are key to designing and constructing efficient photocatalysts. Here, how the spatial distribution of the heteroatom modulates photocatalytic reduction (hydrogen evolution) and oxidation (oxygen evolution) reaction preferences is investigated by moving boron from the core to the shell of an anatase TiO2 microsphere along [001] via thermal diffusion control. The preference towards photocatalytic hydrogen and oxygen producing reactions from splitting water can be switched by creating a shell with an interstitial Bs+ (s = 3) gradient in the TiO2 microsphere. This switching stems from the downward shift of electronic band edges of the shell by a band bending effect that originates from the extra electrons coming from the interstitial Bs+. These results create new opportunities for designing and constructing efficient photocatalysts by spatial heteroatom engineering.



Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3233-3238
Number of pages6
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number15
Early online date23 Apr 2012
Publication statusPublished - 7 Aug 2012

Discover related content
Find related publications, people, projects and more using interactive charts.

View graph of relations

Related by author

  1. Microwave irradiation synthesis to obtain La0.7-xPrxCa0.3MnO3 perovskites: electrical and electrochemical performance

    Ferrel-Alvarez, A. C., Domínguez-Crespo, M. A., Cong, H., Torres-Huerta, A. M., Palma-Ramírez, D. & Irvine, J. T. S., 31 Aug 2020, In : Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 851, 156882.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  2. Graphitic-C3N4 coated floating glass beads for photocatalytic destruction of synthetic and natural organic compounds in water under UV light

    Hui, J., Pestana, C. J., Caux, M., Gunaratne, H. Q. N., Edwards, C., Robertson, P. K. J., Lawton, L. A. & Irvine, J. T. S., 28 Sep 2020, In : Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry. 405, 112935.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  3. Activation of anion redox in P3 structure cobalt-doped sodium manganese oxide via introduction of transition metal vacancies

    Kim, E. J., Mofredj, K., Pickup, D., Chadwick, A., Irvine, J. T. S. & Armstrong, R., 20 Oct 2020, In : Journal of Power Sources. 481, 229010.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  4. Photocatalytic removal of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7813 and four microcystins by TiO2 coated porous glass beads with UV-LED irradiation

    Pestana, C. J., Portela Noronha, J., Hui, J., Edwards, C., Gunaratne, H. Q. N., Irvine, J. T. S., Robertson, P. K. J., Capelo-Neto, J. & Lawton, L. A., 25 Nov 2020, In : Science of the Total Environment. 745, 141154.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  5. Pd and GDC Co-infiltrated LSCM cathode for high-temperature CO2 electrolysis using solid oxide electrolysis cells

    Lee, S., Woo, S. H., Shin, T. H. & Irvine, J. T. S., 13 Nov 2020, In : Chemical Engineering Journal. In press, 127706.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Related by journal

  1. Advanced Functional Materials (Journal)

    David John Cole-Hamilton (Editor)


    Activity: Publication peer-review and editorial work typesEditor of research journal

Related by journal

  1. Incommensurate-commensurate transition in the geometric ferroelectric LaTaO4

    Howieson, G. W., Wu, S., Gibbs, A. S., Zhou, W., Scott, J. F. & Morrison, F. D., 4 Nov 2020, In : Advanced Functional Materials. 30, 45, 10 p., 2004667.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  2. Homogeneous doping of substitutional nitrogen/carbon in TiO2 plates for visible light photocatalytic water oxidation

    Wu, T., Niu, P., Yang, Y., Yin, L-C., Tan, J., Zhu, H., Irvine, J. T. S., Wang, L., Liu, G. & Cheng, H-M., 21 Jun 2019, In : Advanced Functional Materials. 29, 25, 1901943.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  3. Monothiatruxene-based, solution-processed green, sky-blue, and deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes with efficiencies beyond 5% limit

    Maciejczyk, M. R., Zhang, S., Hedley, G. J., Robertson, N., Samuel, I. D. W. & Pietraszkiewicz, M., 8 Feb 2019, In : Advanced Functional Materials. 29, 6, 13 p., 1807572.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  4. Ferroelectric Sr3Zr2O7: competition between hybrid improper ferroelectric and antiferroelectric mechanisms

    Yoshida, S., Fujita, K., Akamatsu, H., Hernandez, O., Sen Gupta, A., Brown, F. G., Padmanabhan, H., Gibbs, A. S., Kuge, T., Tsuji, R., Murai, S., Rondinelli, J. M., Gopalan, V. & Tanaka, K., 23 Jul 2018, In : Advanced Functional Materials. 28, 30, 12 p., 1801856.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

ID: 38004441