Skip to content

Research at St Andrews

Immunology of invertebrates: Cellular

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


School/Research organisations


Circulating blood cells are the primary mediators of immunity in invertebrates, carrying out the phagocytic, pathogen trapping and other inflammatory responses that protect invertebrates against infection without specific immunoglobulin antibodies and immune memory. Different immune cell types are usually specialised for different functions with, in general, immune cell diversity tending to increase with body complexity and life history. However, common to most species are phagocytic and/or granular-type cells that
synthesise and store bioactive proteins. Cellular immunity is induced by non-self motifs on the surface of pathogens or parasites recognised by cell-derived pattern recognition receptors with diverse binding specificities. Cell death appears to be inherent in immune reactivity of many invertebrates and, in some cases, aids pathogen trapping, which prevents their spread around the body. New immune cells are produced, at least in coelomates, by mesodermal haematopoietic tissues.


Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Life Sciences: Wiley
Number of pages13
Publication statusPublished - 15 Feb 2016

Publication series

NameEncyclopedia of Life Sciences
PublisherJohn Wiley & Sons Ltd

Discover related content
Find related publications, people, projects and more using interactive charts.

View graph of relations

Related by author

  1. Cellular stress responses to chronic heat shock and shell damage in temperate Mya truncata

    Sleight, V. A., Peck, L. S., Dyrynda, E. A., Smith, V. J. & Clark, M. S., 12 May 2018, In : Cell Stress and Chaperones. First Online, 15 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  2. Wind turbines cause chronic stress in badgers (Meles meles) in Great Britain

    Agnew, R., Smith, V. J. & Fowkes, R., Jul 2016, In : Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 52, 3, p. 459-467 9 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  3. Hematopoiesis and hemocytes in pancrustacean and molluscan models

    Smith, V. J., Accorsi, A. & Malagoli, D., 20 May 2016, The Evolution of the Immune System: Conservation and Diversification. Malagoli, D. (ed.). 1st ed. Academic Press/Elsevier , p. 1-28

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

  4. Haemocyte extracellular chromatin facilitates encapsulation reactions in a decapod host

    Smith, V. J., Robb, C., Rossi, A., Gray, R. & Dyrynda, E., Jul 2015, 13th International Congress of the International Society of Developmental and Comparative Immunology, Murcia, Spain .

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

ID: 244482453