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Research at St Andrews

Intergenerational replacement and migration in the countries and regions of the United Kingdom, 1971–2009

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Christopher Cleveland Boag Wilson, Lee Williamson


This article uses a recently proposed measure, the overall replacement ratio or ORR, to assess the extent to which migration alters intergenerational replacement within the United Kingdom. The UK as a whole can be seen to experience ‘replacement migration’ as immigration compensates for fertility below the replacement level. However, the article shows that the impact of migration differs radically in the different regions of the country. South East England experiences very substantial immigration from both the rest of the UK and overseas, far more than is needed for intergenerational replacement, whereas most of the rest of the UK sees little or no net immigration and the ORR remains below the replacement level.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)90-105
JournalONS Population Trends
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2011

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