Skip to content

Research at St Andrews

Keeping momentum with a mouthful of water: behavior and kinematics of humpback whale lunge feeding

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

DOI

Standard

Keeping momentum with a mouthful of water : behavior and kinematics of humpback whale lunge feeding. / Simon, Malene; Johnson, Mark; Madsen, Peter T.

In: Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 215, 01.11.2012, p. 3786-3798.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Harvard

Simon, M, Johnson, M & Madsen, PT 2012, 'Keeping momentum with a mouthful of water: behavior and kinematics of humpback whale lunge feeding', Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 215, pp. 3786-3798. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.071092

APA

Simon, M., Johnson, M., & Madsen, P. T. (2012). Keeping momentum with a mouthful of water: behavior and kinematics of humpback whale lunge feeding. Journal of Experimental Biology, 215, 3786-3798. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.071092

Vancouver

Simon M, Johnson M, Madsen PT. Keeping momentum with a mouthful of water: behavior and kinematics of humpback whale lunge feeding. Journal of Experimental Biology. 2012 Nov 1;215:3786-3798. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.071092

Author

Simon, Malene ; Johnson, Mark ; Madsen, Peter T. / Keeping momentum with a mouthful of water : behavior and kinematics of humpback whale lunge feeding. In: Journal of Experimental Biology. 2012 ; Vol. 215. pp. 3786-3798.

Bibtex - Download

@article{36c0edbf952d46269ba5d9d2d1f74a42,
title = "Keeping momentum with a mouthful of water: behavior and kinematics of humpback whale lunge feeding",
abstract = "Rorqual baleen whales lunge feed by engulfment of tons of prey-laden water in a large and expandable buccal pouch. According to prior interpretations, feeding rorquals are brought to a near-halt at the end of each lunge by drag forces primarily generated by the open mouth. Accelerating the body from a standstill is energetically costly and is purported to be the key factor determining oxygen consumption in lunge-feeding rorquals, explaining the shorter dive times than expected given their sizes. Here, we use multi-sensor archival tags (DTAGs) sampling at high rates in a fine-scale kinematic study of lunge feeding to examine the sequence of events within lunges and how energy may be expended and conserved in the process of prey capture. Analysis of 479 lunges from five humpback whales reveals that the whales accelerate as they acquire prey, opening their gape in synchrony with strong fluke strokes. The high forward speed (mean depth rate: 2.0±0.32 m s−1) during engulfment serves both to corral active prey and to expand the ventral margin of the buccal pouch and so maximize the engulfed water volume. Deceleration begins after mouth opening when the pouch nears full expansion and momentum starts to be transferred to the engulfed water. Lunge-feeding humpback whales time fluke strokes throughout the lunge to impart momentum to the engulfed water mass and so avoid a near or complete stop, but instead continue to glide at ~1–1.5 m s−1 after the lunge has ended. Subsequent filtration and prey handling appear to take an average of 46 s and are performed in parallel with re-positioning for the next lunge. ",
author = "Malene Simon and Mark Johnson and Madsen, {Peter T.}",
year = "2012",
month = nov,
day = "1",
doi = "10.1242/jeb.071092",
language = "English",
volume = "215",
pages = "3786--3798",
journal = "Journal of Experimental Biology",
issn = "0022-0949",
publisher = "Company of Biologists Ltd",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) - Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - Keeping momentum with a mouthful of water

T2 - behavior and kinematics of humpback whale lunge feeding

AU - Simon, Malene

AU - Johnson, Mark

AU - Madsen, Peter T.

PY - 2012/11/1

Y1 - 2012/11/1

N2 - Rorqual baleen whales lunge feed by engulfment of tons of prey-laden water in a large and expandable buccal pouch. According to prior interpretations, feeding rorquals are brought to a near-halt at the end of each lunge by drag forces primarily generated by the open mouth. Accelerating the body from a standstill is energetically costly and is purported to be the key factor determining oxygen consumption in lunge-feeding rorquals, explaining the shorter dive times than expected given their sizes. Here, we use multi-sensor archival tags (DTAGs) sampling at high rates in a fine-scale kinematic study of lunge feeding to examine the sequence of events within lunges and how energy may be expended and conserved in the process of prey capture. Analysis of 479 lunges from five humpback whales reveals that the whales accelerate as they acquire prey, opening their gape in synchrony with strong fluke strokes. The high forward speed (mean depth rate: 2.0±0.32 m s−1) during engulfment serves both to corral active prey and to expand the ventral margin of the buccal pouch and so maximize the engulfed water volume. Deceleration begins after mouth opening when the pouch nears full expansion and momentum starts to be transferred to the engulfed water. Lunge-feeding humpback whales time fluke strokes throughout the lunge to impart momentum to the engulfed water mass and so avoid a near or complete stop, but instead continue to glide at ~1–1.5 m s−1 after the lunge has ended. Subsequent filtration and prey handling appear to take an average of 46 s and are performed in parallel with re-positioning for the next lunge.

AB - Rorqual baleen whales lunge feed by engulfment of tons of prey-laden water in a large and expandable buccal pouch. According to prior interpretations, feeding rorquals are brought to a near-halt at the end of each lunge by drag forces primarily generated by the open mouth. Accelerating the body from a standstill is energetically costly and is purported to be the key factor determining oxygen consumption in lunge-feeding rorquals, explaining the shorter dive times than expected given their sizes. Here, we use multi-sensor archival tags (DTAGs) sampling at high rates in a fine-scale kinematic study of lunge feeding to examine the sequence of events within lunges and how energy may be expended and conserved in the process of prey capture. Analysis of 479 lunges from five humpback whales reveals that the whales accelerate as they acquire prey, opening their gape in synchrony with strong fluke strokes. The high forward speed (mean depth rate: 2.0±0.32 m s−1) during engulfment serves both to corral active prey and to expand the ventral margin of the buccal pouch and so maximize the engulfed water volume. Deceleration begins after mouth opening when the pouch nears full expansion and momentum starts to be transferred to the engulfed water. Lunge-feeding humpback whales time fluke strokes throughout the lunge to impart momentum to the engulfed water mass and so avoid a near or complete stop, but instead continue to glide at ~1–1.5 m s−1 after the lunge has ended. Subsequent filtration and prey handling appear to take an average of 46 s and are performed in parallel with re-positioning for the next lunge.

U2 - 10.1242/jeb.071092

DO - 10.1242/jeb.071092

M3 - Article

VL - 215

SP - 3786

EP - 3798

JO - Journal of Experimental Biology

JF - Journal of Experimental Biology

SN - 0022-0949

ER -

Related by journal

  1. Echolocation click parameters and biosonar behaviour of the dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima)

    Malinka, C. E., Tønnesen, P., Dunn, C. A., Claridge, D. E., Gridley, T., Elwen, S. H. & Teglberg Madsen, P., 26 Mar 2021, In: Journal of Experimental Biology. 224, 6, 16 p., jeb240689.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  2. Improving estimates of diving lung volume in air-breathing marine vertebrates

    Fahlman, A., Sato, K. & Miller, P., Jun 2020, In: Journal of Experimental Biology. 223, 7 p., jeb216846.

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

  3. Diving apart together: call propagation in diving long-finned pilot whales

    Kok, A. C. M., van Kolfshoten, L., Campbell, J. A., von Benda-Beckmann, A. M., Miller, P. J. O., Slabbekoorn, H. & Visser, F., 27 May 2020, In: Journal of Experimental Biology. 223, 10, 11 p., jeb207878.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  4. Flash and grab: deep-diving southern elephant seals trigger anti-predator flashes in bioluminescent prey

    Goulet, P., Guinet, C., Campagna, C., Campagna, J., Tyack, P. L. & Johnson, M., 19 May 2020, In: Journal of Experimental Biology. 223, 10, 11 p., jeb.222810.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  5. When the noise goes on: received sound energy predicts sperm whale responses to both intermittent and continuous navy sonar

    Isojunno, S., Wensveen, P., Lam, F-P., Kvadsheim, P., von Brenda-Beckmann, A. M., Martín López, L. M., Kleivane, L., Siegal, E. & Miller, P., 8 Apr 2020, In: Journal of Experimental Biology. 223, 7, 10 p., jeb219741.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

ID: 47630582

Top