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Marine mammal noise exposure criteria: updated scientific recommendations for residual hearing effects

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

DOI

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Marine mammal noise exposure criteria : updated scientific recommendations for residual hearing effects. / Southall, Brandon L.; Finneran, James J.; Reichmuth, Colleen; Nachtigall, Paul E.; Ketten, Darlene R.; Bowles, Anne E.; Ellison, William T.; Nowacek, Douglas P.; Tyack, Peter Lloyd.

In: Aquatic Mammals, Vol. 45, No. 2, 11.03.2019, p. 125-232.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harvard

Southall, BL, Finneran, JJ, Reichmuth, C, Nachtigall, PE, Ketten, DR, Bowles, AE, Ellison, WT, Nowacek, DP & Tyack, PL 2019, 'Marine mammal noise exposure criteria: updated scientific recommendations for residual hearing effects', Aquatic Mammals, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 125-232. https://doi.org/10.1578/AM.45.2.2019.125

APA

Southall, B. L., Finneran, J. J., Reichmuth, C., Nachtigall, P. E., Ketten, D. R., Bowles, A. E., ... Tyack, P. L. (2019). Marine mammal noise exposure criteria: updated scientific recommendations for residual hearing effects. Aquatic Mammals, 45(2), 125-232. https://doi.org/10.1578/AM.45.2.2019.125

Vancouver

Southall BL, Finneran JJ, Reichmuth C, Nachtigall PE, Ketten DR, Bowles AE et al. Marine mammal noise exposure criteria: updated scientific recommendations for residual hearing effects. Aquatic Mammals. 2019 Mar 11;45(2):125-232. https://doi.org/10.1578/AM.45.2.2019.125

Author

Southall, Brandon L. ; Finneran, James J. ; Reichmuth, Colleen ; Nachtigall, Paul E. ; Ketten, Darlene R. ; Bowles, Anne E. ; Ellison, William T. ; Nowacek, Douglas P. ; Tyack, Peter Lloyd. / Marine mammal noise exposure criteria : updated scientific recommendations for residual hearing effects. In: Aquatic Mammals. 2019 ; Vol. 45, No. 2. pp. 125-232.

Bibtex - Download

@article{39ba32eb51724b7e90786df38eff8470,
title = "Marine mammal noise exposure criteria: updated scientific recommendations for residual hearing effects",
abstract = "This article evaluates Southall et al. (2007) in light of subsequent scientific findings and proposes revised noise exposure criteria to predict the onset of auditory effects in marine mammals. Estimated audiograms, weighting functions, and underwater noise exposure criteria for temporary and permanent auditory effects of noise are presented for six species groupings, including all marine mammal species. In-air criteria are also provided for amphibious species. Earlier marine mammal hearing groupings were reviewed and modified based on phylogenetic relationships and a comprehensive review of studies on hearing, auditory anatomy, and sound production. Auditory weighting functions are derived for each group; those proposed here are less flattened and closer to audiograms than the Southall et al. M-weightings. As in Southall et al., noise sources are categorized as either impulsive or non-impulsive, and criteria use multiple exposure metrics to account for different aspects of exposure. For continuous (non-impulsive) noise sources, exposure criteria are given in frequency-weighted sound exposure level (SEL, given in units relative to 1 μPa2-s or (20 μPa2)-s for water and air, respectively). Dual exposure metrics are provided for impulsive noise criteria, including frequency-weighted SEL and unweighted peak sound pressure level (SPL, given in units relative to 1 μPa or 20 μPa for water and air, respectively). Exposures exceeding the specified respective criteria level for any exposure metric are interpreted as resulting in predicted temporary threshold shift (TTS) or permanent threshold shift (PTS) onset. Scientific findings in the last decade provide substantial new insight but also underscore remaining challenges in deriving simple, broadly applicable quantitative exposure criteria for such diverse taxa. These criteria should be considered with regard to relevant caveats, recommended research, and with the expectation of subsequent revision.",
keywords = "Hearing, Marine mammals,, Noise exposure, Weighting, TTS, PTS, Criteria",
author = "Southall, {Brandon L.} and Finneran, {James J.} and Colleen Reichmuth and Nachtigall, {Paul E.} and Ketten, {Darlene R.} and Bowles, {Anne E.} and Ellison, {William T.} and Nowacek, {Douglas P.} and Tyack, {Peter Lloyd}",
note = "Funding: PLT received funding from ONR Grant N000141512553 and MASTS pooling initiative (The Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland), and their support is gratefully acknowledged. MASTS is funded by the Scottish Funding Council (Grant Reference HR09011) and contributing institutions.",
year = "2019",
month = "3",
day = "11",
doi = "10.1578/AM.45.2.2019.125",
language = "English",
volume = "45",
pages = "125--232",
journal = "Aquatic Mammals",
issn = "0167-5427",
publisher = "European Association for Aquatic Mammals",
number = "2",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) - Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - Marine mammal noise exposure criteria

T2 - updated scientific recommendations for residual hearing effects

AU - Southall, Brandon L.

AU - Finneran, James J.

AU - Reichmuth, Colleen

AU - Nachtigall, Paul E.

AU - Ketten, Darlene R.

AU - Bowles, Anne E.

AU - Ellison, William T.

AU - Nowacek, Douglas P.

AU - Tyack, Peter Lloyd

N1 - Funding: PLT received funding from ONR Grant N000141512553 and MASTS pooling initiative (The Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland), and their support is gratefully acknowledged. MASTS is funded by the Scottish Funding Council (Grant Reference HR09011) and contributing institutions.

PY - 2019/3/11

Y1 - 2019/3/11

N2 - This article evaluates Southall et al. (2007) in light of subsequent scientific findings and proposes revised noise exposure criteria to predict the onset of auditory effects in marine mammals. Estimated audiograms, weighting functions, and underwater noise exposure criteria for temporary and permanent auditory effects of noise are presented for six species groupings, including all marine mammal species. In-air criteria are also provided for amphibious species. Earlier marine mammal hearing groupings were reviewed and modified based on phylogenetic relationships and a comprehensive review of studies on hearing, auditory anatomy, and sound production. Auditory weighting functions are derived for each group; those proposed here are less flattened and closer to audiograms than the Southall et al. M-weightings. As in Southall et al., noise sources are categorized as either impulsive or non-impulsive, and criteria use multiple exposure metrics to account for different aspects of exposure. For continuous (non-impulsive) noise sources, exposure criteria are given in frequency-weighted sound exposure level (SEL, given in units relative to 1 μPa2-s or (20 μPa2)-s for water and air, respectively). Dual exposure metrics are provided for impulsive noise criteria, including frequency-weighted SEL and unweighted peak sound pressure level (SPL, given in units relative to 1 μPa or 20 μPa for water and air, respectively). Exposures exceeding the specified respective criteria level for any exposure metric are interpreted as resulting in predicted temporary threshold shift (TTS) or permanent threshold shift (PTS) onset. Scientific findings in the last decade provide substantial new insight but also underscore remaining challenges in deriving simple, broadly applicable quantitative exposure criteria for such diverse taxa. These criteria should be considered with regard to relevant caveats, recommended research, and with the expectation of subsequent revision.

AB - This article evaluates Southall et al. (2007) in light of subsequent scientific findings and proposes revised noise exposure criteria to predict the onset of auditory effects in marine mammals. Estimated audiograms, weighting functions, and underwater noise exposure criteria for temporary and permanent auditory effects of noise are presented for six species groupings, including all marine mammal species. In-air criteria are also provided for amphibious species. Earlier marine mammal hearing groupings were reviewed and modified based on phylogenetic relationships and a comprehensive review of studies on hearing, auditory anatomy, and sound production. Auditory weighting functions are derived for each group; those proposed here are less flattened and closer to audiograms than the Southall et al. M-weightings. As in Southall et al., noise sources are categorized as either impulsive or non-impulsive, and criteria use multiple exposure metrics to account for different aspects of exposure. For continuous (non-impulsive) noise sources, exposure criteria are given in frequency-weighted sound exposure level (SEL, given in units relative to 1 μPa2-s or (20 μPa2)-s for water and air, respectively). Dual exposure metrics are provided for impulsive noise criteria, including frequency-weighted SEL and unweighted peak sound pressure level (SPL, given in units relative to 1 μPa or 20 μPa for water and air, respectively). Exposures exceeding the specified respective criteria level for any exposure metric are interpreted as resulting in predicted temporary threshold shift (TTS) or permanent threshold shift (PTS) onset. Scientific findings in the last decade provide substantial new insight but also underscore remaining challenges in deriving simple, broadly applicable quantitative exposure criteria for such diverse taxa. These criteria should be considered with regard to relevant caveats, recommended research, and with the expectation of subsequent revision.

KW - Hearing

KW - Marine mammals,

KW - Noise exposure

KW - Weighting

KW - TTS

KW - PTS

KW - Criteria

U2 - 10.1578/AM.45.2.2019.125

DO - 10.1578/AM.45.2.2019.125

M3 - Article

VL - 45

SP - 125

EP - 232

JO - Aquatic Mammals

JF - Aquatic Mammals

SN - 0167-5427

IS - 2

ER -

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