Skip to content

Research at St Andrews

New observational constraints on the winds of M dwarf stars

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

DOI

Open Access Status

  • Embargoed (until 1/07/22)

Author(s)

Brian E. Wood, Hans-Reinhard Muller, Seth Redfield, Fallon Konow, Hunter Vannier, Jeffrey L. Linsky, Allison Youngblood, Aline A. Vidotto, Moira Jardine, Julian D. Alvarado-Gomez, Jeremy J. Drake

School/Research organisations

Abstract

High resolution UV spectra of stellar H I Lyα lines from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) provide observational constraints on the winds of coronal main sequence stars, thanks to an astrospheric absorption signature created by the interaction between the stellar winds and the interstellar medium. We report the results of a new HST survey of M dwarf stars, yielding six new detections of astrospheric absorption. We estimate mass-loss rates for these detections, and upper limits for nondetections. These new constraints allow us to characterize the nature of M dwarf winds and their dependenceon coronal activity for the first time. For a clear majority of the M dwarfs, we find winds that are weaker or comparable in strength to that of the Sun, i.e. M˙ ≤ 1 M˙⊙. However, two of the M dwarfs have much stronger winds: YZ CMi (M4 Ve; M˙ = 30M˙⊙) and GJ 15AB (M2 V+M3.5 V; M˙ = 10 M˙⊙). Even these winds are much weaker than expectations if the solar relation between flare energy and coronal mass ejection (CME) mass extended to M dwarfs. Thus, the solar flare/CME relation does not appear to apply to M dwarfs, with important ramifications for the habitability of exoplanets around M dwarfs. There is evidence for some increase in M˙ with coronal activity as quantified by X-ray flux, but with much scatter. One or more other factors must be involved in determining wind strength besides spectral type and coronal activity, with magnetic topology being one clear possibility. 
Close

Details

Original languageEnglish
Article number37
Number of pages21
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume915
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2021

    Research areas

  • Stellar coronae, Stellar phenomena, Stellar winds, Astrospheres, Ultraviolet astronomy

Discover related content
Find related publications, people, projects and more using interactive charts.

View graph of relations

Related by author

  1. Slingshot prominences: a hidden mass loss mechanism

    Waugh, R., Jardine, M. M., Morin, J. & Donati, J-F., Aug 2021, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 505, 4, p. 5104-5116

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  2. Planet-induced radio emission from the coronae of M dwarfs: the case of Prox Cen and AU Mic

    Kavanagh, R. D., Vidotto, A. A., Klein, B., Jardine, M. M., Donati, J-F. & Fionnagáin, D. Ó., 5 Apr 2021, (Accepted/In press) In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Advance Article

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  3. Field linkage and magnetic helicity density

    Lund, K., Jardine, M., Russell, A. J. B., Donati, J-F., Fares, R., Folsom, C. P., Jeffers, S. V., Marsden, S. C., Morin, J., Petit, P. & See, V., Apr 2021, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 502, 4, p. 4903–4910

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  4. MOVES IV. Modelling the influence of stellar XUV-flux, cosmic rays, and stellar energetic particles on the atmospheric composition of the hot Jupiter HD 189733b

    Barth, P., Helling, C., Stueeken, E. E., Bourrier, V., Mayne, N., Rimmer, P., Jardine, M. M., Vidotto, A., Wheatley, P. & Fares, R., Apr 2021, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 502, 4, p. 6201–6215 15 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  5. Magnetic field and chromospheric activity evolution of HD 75332: a rapid magnetic cycle in an F star without a hot Jupiter

    Brown, E. L., Marsden, S. C., Mengel, M. W., Jeffers, S. V., Millburn, I., Mittag, M., Petit, P., Vidotto, A. A., Morin, J., See, V., Jardine, M. & González-Pérez, J. N., Mar 2021, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 501, 3, p. 3981–4003

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Related by journal

  1. Line-tied boundary conditions can cause resonant absorption models to generate unphysically large boundary layers

    Prokopyszyn, APK., Wright, AN. & Hood, AW., 10 Jun 2021, In: Astrophysical Journal. 914, 1, 19 p., 15.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  2. Evidence of wind signatures in the gas velocity profiles of red geysers

    Roy, N., Bundy, K., Nevin, R., Belfiore, F., Yan, R., Campbell, S., Riffel, R. A., Riffel, R., Bershady, M., Westfall, K., Drory, N. & Zhang, K., 21 May 2021, In: Astrophysical Journal. 913, 1, 19 p., 33.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  3. From formation to disruption: observing the multiphase evolution of a solar flare current sheet

    Chitta, L. P., Priest, E. R. & Cheng, X., 27 Apr 2021, In: Astrophysical Journal. 911, 2, 12 p., 133.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  4. The black hole mass of the z=2.805 multiply imaged quasar SDSS J2222+2745 from velocity-resolved time lags of the C iv emission line

    Williams, PR., Treu, T., Dahle, H., Valenti, S., Abramson, L., Barth, AJ., Dyrland, K., Gladders, M., Horne, K. & Sharon, K., 16 Apr 2021, In: Astrophysical Journal. 911, 1, 18 p., 64.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Related by journal

  1. Astrophysical Journal (Journal)

    Carolin Villforth (Reviewer)

    2011 → …

    Activity: Publication peer-review and editorial work typesPeer review of manuscripts

  2. Astrophysical Journal (Journal)

    Christiane Helling (Reviewer)

    1 Jan 200631 Dec 2017

    Activity: Publication peer-review and editorial work typesPeer review of manuscripts

  3. Astrophysical Journal (Journal)

    Duncan Hendry Mackay (Editor)

    1997 → …

    Activity: Publication peer-review and editorial work typesEditor of research journal

  4. Astrophysical Journal (Journal)

    Alan William Hood (Editor)

    1980 → …

    Activity: Publication peer-review and editorial work typesEditor of research journal

ID: 275079074

Top