Skip to content

Research at St Andrews

Occurrence of human enteric viruses in water sources and shellfish: a focus on Africa

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Standard

Occurrence of human enteric viruses in water sources and shellfish : a focus on Africa. / Upfold, Nicole S.; Luke, Garry A.; Knox, Caroline.

In: Food and Environmental Virology, Vol. 13, No. 1, 27.01.2021, p. 1-31.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Harvard

Upfold, NS, Luke, GA & Knox, C 2021, 'Occurrence of human enteric viruses in water sources and shellfish: a focus on Africa', Food and Environmental Virology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 1-31. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12560-020-09456-8

APA

Upfold, N. S., Luke, G. A., & Knox, C. (2021). Occurrence of human enteric viruses in water sources and shellfish: a focus on Africa. Food and Environmental Virology, 13(1), 1-31. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12560-020-09456-8

Vancouver

Upfold NS, Luke GA, Knox C. Occurrence of human enteric viruses in water sources and shellfish: a focus on Africa. Food and Environmental Virology. 2021 Jan 27;13(1):1-31. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12560-020-09456-8

Author

Upfold, Nicole S. ; Luke, Garry A. ; Knox, Caroline. / Occurrence of human enteric viruses in water sources and shellfish : a focus on Africa. In: Food and Environmental Virology. 2021 ; Vol. 13, No. 1. pp. 1-31.

Bibtex - Download

@article{bc11296c8b47445eab00c0d9f05926b4,
title = "Occurrence of human enteric viruses in water sources and shellfish: a focus on Africa",
abstract = "Enteric viruses are a diverse group of human pathogens which are primarily transmitted by the faecal–oral route and are a major cause of non-bacterial diarrhoeal disease in both developed and developing countries. Because they are shed in high numbers by infected individuals and can persist for a long time in the environment, they pose a serious threat to human health globally. Enteric viruses end up in the environment mainly through discharge or leakage of raw or inadequately treated sewage into water sources such as springs, rivers, dams, or marine estuaries. Human exposure then follows when contaminated water is used for drinking, cooking, or recreation and, importantly, when filter-feeding bivalve shellfish are consumed. The human health hazard posed by enteric viruses is particularly serious in Africa where rapid urbanisation in a relatively short period of time has led to the expansion of informal settlements with poor sanitation and failing or non-existent wastewater treatment infrastructure, and where rural communities with limited or no access to municipal water are dependent on nearby open water sources for their subsistence. The role of sewage-contaminated water and bivalve shellfish as vehicles for transmission of enteric viruses is well documented but, to our knowledge, has not been comprehensively reviewed in the African context. Here we provide an overview of enteric viruses and then review the growing body of research where these viruses have been detected in association with sewage-contaminated water or food in several African countries. These studies highlight the need for more research into the prevalence, molecular epidemiology and circulation of these viruses in Africa, as well as for development and application of innovative wastewater treatment approaches to reduce environmental pollution and its impact on human health on the continent.",
keywords = "African continent, Enteric viruses, Gastroenteritis, Shellfish, Wastewater",
author = "Upfold, {Nicole S.} and Luke, {Garry A.} and Caroline Knox",
note = "This work was supported by a Research Council (RC, Rhodes University) grant.",
year = "2021",
month = jan,
day = "27",
doi = "10.1007/s12560-020-09456-8",
language = "English",
volume = "13",
pages = "1--31",
journal = "Food and Environmental Virology",
issn = "1867-0342",
publisher = "Springer",
number = "1",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) - Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - Occurrence of human enteric viruses in water sources and shellfish

T2 - a focus on Africa

AU - Upfold, Nicole S.

AU - Luke, Garry A.

AU - Knox, Caroline

N1 - This work was supported by a Research Council (RC, Rhodes University) grant.

PY - 2021/1/27

Y1 - 2021/1/27

N2 - Enteric viruses are a diverse group of human pathogens which are primarily transmitted by the faecal–oral route and are a major cause of non-bacterial diarrhoeal disease in both developed and developing countries. Because they are shed in high numbers by infected individuals and can persist for a long time in the environment, they pose a serious threat to human health globally. Enteric viruses end up in the environment mainly through discharge or leakage of raw or inadequately treated sewage into water sources such as springs, rivers, dams, or marine estuaries. Human exposure then follows when contaminated water is used for drinking, cooking, or recreation and, importantly, when filter-feeding bivalve shellfish are consumed. The human health hazard posed by enteric viruses is particularly serious in Africa where rapid urbanisation in a relatively short period of time has led to the expansion of informal settlements with poor sanitation and failing or non-existent wastewater treatment infrastructure, and where rural communities with limited or no access to municipal water are dependent on nearby open water sources for their subsistence. The role of sewage-contaminated water and bivalve shellfish as vehicles for transmission of enteric viruses is well documented but, to our knowledge, has not been comprehensively reviewed in the African context. Here we provide an overview of enteric viruses and then review the growing body of research where these viruses have been detected in association with sewage-contaminated water or food in several African countries. These studies highlight the need for more research into the prevalence, molecular epidemiology and circulation of these viruses in Africa, as well as for development and application of innovative wastewater treatment approaches to reduce environmental pollution and its impact on human health on the continent.

AB - Enteric viruses are a diverse group of human pathogens which are primarily transmitted by the faecal–oral route and are a major cause of non-bacterial diarrhoeal disease in both developed and developing countries. Because they are shed in high numbers by infected individuals and can persist for a long time in the environment, they pose a serious threat to human health globally. Enteric viruses end up in the environment mainly through discharge or leakage of raw or inadequately treated sewage into water sources such as springs, rivers, dams, or marine estuaries. Human exposure then follows when contaminated water is used for drinking, cooking, or recreation and, importantly, when filter-feeding bivalve shellfish are consumed. The human health hazard posed by enteric viruses is particularly serious in Africa where rapid urbanisation in a relatively short period of time has led to the expansion of informal settlements with poor sanitation and failing or non-existent wastewater treatment infrastructure, and where rural communities with limited or no access to municipal water are dependent on nearby open water sources for their subsistence. The role of sewage-contaminated water and bivalve shellfish as vehicles for transmission of enteric viruses is well documented but, to our knowledge, has not been comprehensively reviewed in the African context. Here we provide an overview of enteric viruses and then review the growing body of research where these viruses have been detected in association with sewage-contaminated water or food in several African countries. These studies highlight the need for more research into the prevalence, molecular epidemiology and circulation of these viruses in Africa, as well as for development and application of innovative wastewater treatment approaches to reduce environmental pollution and its impact on human health on the continent.

KW - African continent

KW - Enteric viruses

KW - Gastroenteritis

KW - Shellfish

KW - Wastewater

U2 - 10.1007/s12560-020-09456-8

DO - 10.1007/s12560-020-09456-8

M3 - Review article

C2 - 33501612

AN - SCOPUS:85099914388

VL - 13

SP - 1

EP - 31

JO - Food and Environmental Virology

JF - Food and Environmental Virology

SN - 1867-0342

IS - 1

ER -

Related by author

  1. Expression and immunogenicity of secreted forms of bovine ephemeral fever virus glycoproteins applied to subunit vaccine development

    Lo, Y-T., Tulloch, F., Wu, H-C., Luke, G. A., Ryan, M. D. & Chu, C-Y., 3 Mar 2021, (E-pub ahead of print) In: Journal of Applied Microbiology. Early View

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  2. Translation of Viral Proteins

    Ryan, M. D. & Luke, G. A., 2021, Encyclopedia of Virology: The Virus as a Concept - Fundamentals of Virology. Bamford, D. & Zuckerman, M. (eds.). 4 ed. New York: ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, Vol. 1. p. 444-459 15 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

  3. A transgenic line that reports CSF1R protein expression provides a definitive marker for the mouse mononuclear phagocyte system

    Grabert, K., Sehgal, A., Irvine, K. M., Wollscheid-Lengeling, E., Ozdemir, D. D., Stables, J., Luke, G. A., Ryan, M. D., Adamson, A., Humphreys, N. E., Sandrock, C. J., Rojo, R., Verkasalo, V. A., Mueller, W., Hohenstein, P., Pettit, A. R., Pridans, C. & Hume, D. A., 1 Dec 2020, In: The Journal of Immunology. 205, 11

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  4. The first detection of Human Bocavirus Species 2 and 3 in raw sewage and mussels in South Africa

    Onosi, O., Upfold, N., Jukes, M. D., Luke, G. A. & Knox, C. M., 1 Mar 2020, In: Food and Environmental Virology. 12, p. 84-88

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Related by journal

  1. The first detection of Human Bocavirus Species 2 and 3 in raw sewage and mussels in South Africa

    Onosi, O., Upfold, N., Jukes, M. D., Luke, G. A. & Knox, C. M., 1 Mar 2020, In: Food and Environmental Virology. 12, p. 84-88

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  2. The first molecular detection of Aichi virus 1 in raw sewage and mussels collected in South Africa

    Onosi, O., Upfold, N. S., Jukes, M. D., Luke, G. A. & Knox, C., 2019, In: Food and Environmental Virology. 11, 1, p. 96-100 5 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

ID: 272847991

Top