Skip to content

Research at St Andrews

Problems in FMD eradication: a way forward?

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


School/Research organisations


Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) is one of the most commonly reported OIE-listed pathogens. FMDV is one of the most contagious mammalian viruses known to man: the virus is endemic in many developing countries causing substantial economic loses and the restriction of international trade in animals/animal products. The virus infects domestic animals (cattle, pigs, sheep, goats), but also a wide range of wild-life species, the latter forming reservoirs of disease. The need to diagnose FMDV infections (serotype/strain identification) and vaccine production/testing requires expensive, high disease security/containment facilities. Chemically inactivated (‘killed’) vaccines have
been available for decades, but the huge genetic diversity of this virus (7 serotypes with 1000s of subtypes) and the need to periodically re-vaccinate animals to maintain protective levels of antibodies argue for the development of new vaccines. Indeed, in the early 1990s, on the basis of a cost-benefit analysis, the European Union replaced the policy of routine vaccination using the inactivated vaccine with disease control via mass-slaughter of infected and surrounding susceptible animals (plus vaccination in extremis). For various reasons mass-slaughter is unacceptable in many developing countries so in their case vaccination, in one form or another, is the only way forward. In the past few years there have been exciting developments in the production of new types of vaccine and many hold great prospects for improving disease control, but the thesis of this paper is that only the development of a new type of vaccine – live, attenuated, FMDV strains, offers the prospect of eradicating FMDV.


Original languageEnglish
Article number1140
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Veterinary Medicine and Research
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 5 Jul 2018

    Research areas

  • FMDV disease control, FMDV eradication, Inactivated FMDV vaccines, Sub-unit FMDV vaccines, Virus-like particles, Live attentuated FMDV vaccines

Discover related content
Find related publications, people, projects and more using interactive charts.

View graph of relations

Related by author

  1. A transgenic line that reports CSF1R protein expression provides a definitive marker for the mouse mononuclear phagocyte system

    Grabert, K., Sehgal, A., Irvine, K. M., Wollscheid-Lengeling, E., Ozdemir, D. D., Stables, J., Luke, G. A., Ryan, M. D., Adamson, A., Humphreys, N. E., Sandrock, C. J., Rojo, R., Verkasalo, V. A., Mueller, W., Hohenstein, P., Pettit, A. R., Pridans, C. & Hume, D. A., 1 Dec 2020, In: The Journal of Immunology. 205, 11

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  2. Therapeutic applications of the 'NPGP' family of viral 2As

    Luke, G. A. & Ryan, M. D., Nov 2018, In: Reviews in Medical Virology. 28, 6, 12 p., e2001.

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

  3. Using the 2A Protein Coexpression System: Multicistronic 2A Vectors Expressing Gene(s) of Interest and Reporter Proteins

    Luke, G. A. & Ryan, M. D., 2018, Reporter Gene Assays: Methods and Protocols. Damoiseaux, R. & Hasson, S. (eds.). New York: Humana Press/Springer, Vol. 1755. p. 31-48

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

  4. The potential consequences for cell Signaling by a class of NOD-Like Receptor proteins (NLRs) bearing an N-terminal signal sequence

    Ryan, M. D., Roulston, C., de Felipe, P., Odon, V., Tilsner, J. & Luke, G. A., 19 May 2017, In: Journal of Cell Signaling. 2, 2, 3 p., 148.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  5. Foot-and-mouth Disease Virus Proteinases and Polyprotein Processing

    Tulloch, F., Luke, G. A. & Ryan, M. D., 2017, (Accepted/In press) Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus: Current Research and Emerging Trends. Caister Academic Press, p. 43-60

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

ID: 254465521