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Rapid ocean acidification and protracted Earth system recovery followed the end-Cretaceous Chicxulub impact

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Rapid ocean acidification and protracted Earth system recovery followed the end-Cretaceous Chicxulub impact. / Henehan, Michael J.; Ridgwell, Andy; Thomas, Ellen; Zhang, Shuang; Alegret, Laia; Schmidt, Daniela N.; Rae, James W. B.; Witts, James D.; Landman, Neil H.; Greene, Sarah E.; Huber, Brian T.; Super, James R.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Hull, Pincelli M.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 116, No. 45, 05.11.2019, p. 22500-22504.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Harvard

Henehan, MJ, Ridgwell, A, Thomas, E, Zhang, S, Alegret, L, Schmidt, DN, Rae, JWB, Witts, JD, Landman, NH, Greene, SE, Huber, BT, Super, JR, Planavsky, NJ & Hull, PM 2019, 'Rapid ocean acidification and protracted Earth system recovery followed the end-Cretaceous Chicxulub impact', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 116, no. 45, pp. 22500-22504. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1905989116

APA

Henehan, M. J., Ridgwell, A., Thomas, E., Zhang, S., Alegret, L., Schmidt, D. N., Rae, J. W. B., Witts, J. D., Landman, N. H., Greene, S. E., Huber, B. T., Super, J. R., Planavsky, N. J., & Hull, P. M. (2019). Rapid ocean acidification and protracted Earth system recovery followed the end-Cretaceous Chicxulub impact. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 116(45), 22500-22504. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1905989116

Vancouver

Henehan MJ, Ridgwell A, Thomas E, Zhang S, Alegret L, Schmidt DN et al. Rapid ocean acidification and protracted Earth system recovery followed the end-Cretaceous Chicxulub impact. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2019 Nov 5;116(45):22500-22504. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1905989116

Author

Henehan, Michael J. ; Ridgwell, Andy ; Thomas, Ellen ; Zhang, Shuang ; Alegret, Laia ; Schmidt, Daniela N. ; Rae, James W. B. ; Witts, James D. ; Landman, Neil H. ; Greene, Sarah E. ; Huber, Brian T. ; Super, James R. ; Planavsky, Noah J. ; Hull, Pincelli M. / Rapid ocean acidification and protracted Earth system recovery followed the end-Cretaceous Chicxulub impact. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2019 ; Vol. 116, No. 45. pp. 22500-22504.

Bibtex - Download

@article{e0bb6a3fda1a40ba9e05e5fda011320b,
title = "Rapid ocean acidification and protracted Earth system recovery followed the end-Cretaceous Chicxulub impact",
abstract = "Mass extinction at the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary coincides with the Chicxulub bolide impact and also falls within the broader time frame of Deccan trap emplacement. Critically, though, empirical evidence as to how either of these factors could have driven observed extinction patterns and carbon cycle perturbations is still lacking. Here, using boron isotopes in foraminifera, we document a geologically rapid surface-ocean pH drop following the Chicxulub impact, supporting impact-induced ocean acidification as a mechanism for ecological collapse in the marine realm. Subsequently, surface water pH rebounded sharply with the extinction of marine calcifiers and the associated imbalance in the global carbon cycle. Our reconstructed water-column pH gradients, combined with Earth system modeling, indicate that a partial ∼50% reduction in global marine primary productivity is sufficient to explain observed marine carbon isotope patterns at the K-Pg, due to the underlying action of the solubility pump. While primary productivity recovered within a few tens of thousands of years, inefficiency in carbon export to the deep sea lasted much longer. This phased recovery scenario reconciles competing hypotheses previously put forward to explain the K-Pg carbon isotope records, and explains both spatially variable patterns of change in marine productivity across the event and a lack of extinction at the deep sea floor. In sum, we provide insights into the drivers of the last mass extinction, the recovery of marine carbon cycling in a postextinction world, and the way in which marine life imprints its isotopic signal onto the geological record.",
keywords = "Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary, Ocean acidification, Boron isotopes, Mass extinction, GENIE model",
author = "Henehan, {Michael J.} and Andy Ridgwell and Ellen Thomas and Shuang Zhang and Laia Alegret and Schmidt, {Daniela N.} and Rae, {James W. B.} and Witts, {James D.} and Landman, {Neil H.} and Greene, {Sarah E.} and Huber, {Brian T.} and Super, {James R.} and Planavsky, {Noah J.} and Hull, {Pincelli M.}",
note = "J.W.B.R. was supported by ERC Starting Grant 805246 OldCO2NewArchives.",
year = "2019",
month = nov,
day = "5",
doi = "10.1073/pnas.1905989116",
language = "English",
volume = "116",
pages = "22500--22504",
journal = "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America",
issn = "0027-8424",
publisher = "NATL ACAD SCIENCES",
number = "45",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) - Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - Rapid ocean acidification and protracted Earth system recovery followed the end-Cretaceous Chicxulub impact

AU - Henehan, Michael J.

AU - Ridgwell, Andy

AU - Thomas, Ellen

AU - Zhang, Shuang

AU - Alegret, Laia

AU - Schmidt, Daniela N.

AU - Rae, James W. B.

AU - Witts, James D.

AU - Landman, Neil H.

AU - Greene, Sarah E.

AU - Huber, Brian T.

AU - Super, James R.

AU - Planavsky, Noah J.

AU - Hull, Pincelli M.

N1 - J.W.B.R. was supported by ERC Starting Grant 805246 OldCO2NewArchives.

PY - 2019/11/5

Y1 - 2019/11/5

N2 - Mass extinction at the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary coincides with the Chicxulub bolide impact and also falls within the broader time frame of Deccan trap emplacement. Critically, though, empirical evidence as to how either of these factors could have driven observed extinction patterns and carbon cycle perturbations is still lacking. Here, using boron isotopes in foraminifera, we document a geologically rapid surface-ocean pH drop following the Chicxulub impact, supporting impact-induced ocean acidification as a mechanism for ecological collapse in the marine realm. Subsequently, surface water pH rebounded sharply with the extinction of marine calcifiers and the associated imbalance in the global carbon cycle. Our reconstructed water-column pH gradients, combined with Earth system modeling, indicate that a partial ∼50% reduction in global marine primary productivity is sufficient to explain observed marine carbon isotope patterns at the K-Pg, due to the underlying action of the solubility pump. While primary productivity recovered within a few tens of thousands of years, inefficiency in carbon export to the deep sea lasted much longer. This phased recovery scenario reconciles competing hypotheses previously put forward to explain the K-Pg carbon isotope records, and explains both spatially variable patterns of change in marine productivity across the event and a lack of extinction at the deep sea floor. In sum, we provide insights into the drivers of the last mass extinction, the recovery of marine carbon cycling in a postextinction world, and the way in which marine life imprints its isotopic signal onto the geological record.

AB - Mass extinction at the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary coincides with the Chicxulub bolide impact and also falls within the broader time frame of Deccan trap emplacement. Critically, though, empirical evidence as to how either of these factors could have driven observed extinction patterns and carbon cycle perturbations is still lacking. Here, using boron isotopes in foraminifera, we document a geologically rapid surface-ocean pH drop following the Chicxulub impact, supporting impact-induced ocean acidification as a mechanism for ecological collapse in the marine realm. Subsequently, surface water pH rebounded sharply with the extinction of marine calcifiers and the associated imbalance in the global carbon cycle. Our reconstructed water-column pH gradients, combined with Earth system modeling, indicate that a partial ∼50% reduction in global marine primary productivity is sufficient to explain observed marine carbon isotope patterns at the K-Pg, due to the underlying action of the solubility pump. While primary productivity recovered within a few tens of thousands of years, inefficiency in carbon export to the deep sea lasted much longer. This phased recovery scenario reconciles competing hypotheses previously put forward to explain the K-Pg carbon isotope records, and explains both spatially variable patterns of change in marine productivity across the event and a lack of extinction at the deep sea floor. In sum, we provide insights into the drivers of the last mass extinction, the recovery of marine carbon cycling in a postextinction world, and the way in which marine life imprints its isotopic signal onto the geological record.

KW - Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary

KW - Ocean acidification

KW - Boron isotopes

KW - Mass extinction

KW - GENIE model

U2 - 10.1073/pnas.1905989116

DO - 10.1073/pnas.1905989116

M3 - Article

C2 - 31636204

VL - 116

SP - 22500

EP - 22504

JO - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

JF - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

SN - 0027-8424

IS - 45

ER -

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