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Recent progress in antiretrovirals - lessons from resistance

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Recent failures in efforts to develop an effective vaccine against HIV-1 infection have emphasized the importance of antiretroviral therapy in treating HIV-1-infected patients. Thus far, inhibitors of two viral enzymes, reverse transcriptase and protease, have had a profoundly positive impact on the survival of HIV-1-infected patients. However, new inhibitors that act at diverse steps in the viral replication cycle are urgently needed because of the development of resistance to currently available antiretrovirals. This review summarizes recent progress in antiretroviral drug discovery and development by specifically focusing on novel inhibitors of three phases of replication: viral entry, integration of the viral DNA into the host cell genome and virus particle maturation.

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