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Relative body weight and standardised brightness-mode ultrasound measurement of subcutaneous fat in athletes: an international multicentre reliability study, under the auspices of the IOC Medical Commission

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Relative body weight and standardised brightness-mode ultrasound measurement of subcutaneous fat in athletes : an international multicentre reliability study, under the auspices of the IOC Medical Commission. / Müller, Wolfram; Fürhapter-Rieger, Alfred; Ahammer, Helmut; Lohman, Timothy G.; Meyer, Nanna L.; Sardinha, Luis B.; Stewart, Arthur D.; Maughan, Ronald J.; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Müller, Tom; Harris, Margaret; Kirihennedige, Nuwanee; Magalhaes, Joao P.; Melo, Xavier; Pirstinger, Wolfram; Reguant-Closa, Alba; Risoul-Salas, Vanessa; Ackland, Timothy R.

In: Sports Medicine, Vol. First Online, 30.09.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Harvard

Müller, W, Fürhapter-Rieger, A, Ahammer, H, Lohman, TG, Meyer, NL, Sardinha, LB, Stewart, AD, Maughan, RJ, Sundgot-Borgen, J, Müller, T, Harris, M, Kirihennedige, N, Magalhaes, JP, Melo, X, Pirstinger, W, Reguant-Closa, A, Risoul-Salas, V & Ackland, TR 2019, 'Relative body weight and standardised brightness-mode ultrasound measurement of subcutaneous fat in athletes: an international multicentre reliability study, under the auspices of the IOC Medical Commission', Sports Medicine, vol. First Online. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-019-01192-9

APA

Müller, W., Fürhapter-Rieger, A., Ahammer, H., Lohman, T. G., Meyer, N. L., Sardinha, L. B., Stewart, A. D., Maughan, R. J., Sundgot-Borgen, J., Müller, T., Harris, M., Kirihennedige, N., Magalhaes, J. P., Melo, X., Pirstinger, W., Reguant-Closa, A., Risoul-Salas, V., & Ackland, T. R. (2019). Relative body weight and standardised brightness-mode ultrasound measurement of subcutaneous fat in athletes: an international multicentre reliability study, under the auspices of the IOC Medical Commission. Sports Medicine, First Online. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-019-01192-9

Vancouver

Müller W, Fürhapter-Rieger A, Ahammer H, Lohman TG, Meyer NL, Sardinha LB et al. Relative body weight and standardised brightness-mode ultrasound measurement of subcutaneous fat in athletes: an international multicentre reliability study, under the auspices of the IOC Medical Commission. Sports Medicine. 2019 Sep 30;First Online. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-019-01192-9

Author

Müller, Wolfram ; Fürhapter-Rieger, Alfred ; Ahammer, Helmut ; Lohman, Timothy G. ; Meyer, Nanna L. ; Sardinha, Luis B. ; Stewart, Arthur D. ; Maughan, Ronald J. ; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn ; Müller, Tom ; Harris, Margaret ; Kirihennedige, Nuwanee ; Magalhaes, Joao P. ; Melo, Xavier ; Pirstinger, Wolfram ; Reguant-Closa, Alba ; Risoul-Salas, Vanessa ; Ackland, Timothy R. / Relative body weight and standardised brightness-mode ultrasound measurement of subcutaneous fat in athletes : an international multicentre reliability study, under the auspices of the IOC Medical Commission. In: Sports Medicine. 2019 ; Vol. First Online.

Bibtex - Download

@article{603c3ee6618c4908ad7a70971347469e,
title = "Relative body weight and standardised brightness-mode ultrasound measurement of subcutaneous fat in athletes: an international multicentre reliability study, under the auspices of the IOC Medical Commission",
abstract = "Introduction: Fat is a metabolic fuel, but excess body fat is ballast mass, and therefore, many elite athletes reduce body fat to dangerously low levels. Uncompressed subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thickness measured by brightness-mode ultrasound (US) provides an estimate of body fat content. Methods: The accuracy for determining tissue borders is about 0.1–0.2 mm and reliability (experienced measurers) was within ± 1.4 mm (95% limit of agreement, LOA). We present here inter- and intra-measurer scores of three experienced US measurers from each of the centres C1 and C2, and of three novice measurers from each of the centres C3–C5. Each of the five centres measured 16 competitive adult athletes of national or international level, except for one centre where the number was 12. The following sports were included: artistic gymnastics, judo, pentathlon, power lifting, rowing, kayak, soccer, tennis, rugby, basketball, field hockey, water polo, volleyball, American football, triathlon, swimming, cycling, long-distance running, mid-distance running, hurdles, cross-country skiing, snowboarding, and ice hockey. SAT contour was detected semi-automatically: typically, 100 thicknesses of SAT at a given site (i.e., in a given image), with and without fibrous structures, were measured. Results: At SAT thickness sums DI (of eight standardised sites) between 6.0 and 70.0 mm, the LOA of experienced measurers was 1.2 mm, and the intra-class correlation coefficient ICC was 0.998; novice measurers: 3.1 mm and 0.988. Intra-measurer differences were similar. The median DI value of all 39 female participants was 51 mm (11% fibrous structures) compared to 17 mm (18%) in the 37 male participants. Discussion: DI measurement accuracy and precision enables detection of fat mass changes of approximately 0.2 kg. Such reliability has not been reached with any other method. Although females{\textquoteright} median body mass index and mass index were lower than those of males, females{\textquoteright} median DI was three times higher, and their percentage of fibrous structures was lower. The standardised US method provides a highly accurate and reliable tool for measuring SAT and thus changes in body fat, but training of measurers is important.",
author = "Wolfram M{\"u}ller and Alfred F{\"u}rhapter-Rieger and Helmut Ahammer and Lohman, {Timothy G.} and Meyer, {Nanna L.} and Sardinha, {Luis B.} and Stewart, {Arthur D.} and Maughan, {Ronald J.} and Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen and Tom M{\"u}ller and Margaret Harris and Nuwanee Kirihennedige and Magalhaes, {Joao P.} and Xavier Melo and Wolfram Pirstinger and Alba Reguant-Closa and Vanessa Risoul-Salas and Ackland, {Timothy R.}",
note = "The IOC Medical Commission supported travelling and meetings of the Working Group on Body Composition, Health and Performance (*). Open access funding provided by Medical University of Graz.",
year = "2019",
month = sep,
day = "30",
doi = "10.1007/s40279-019-01192-9",
language = "English",
volume = "First Online",
journal = "Sports Medicine",
issn = "0112-1642",
publisher = "Springer-Verlag",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) - Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - Relative body weight and standardised brightness-mode ultrasound measurement of subcutaneous fat in athletes

T2 - an international multicentre reliability study, under the auspices of the IOC Medical Commission

AU - Müller, Wolfram

AU - Fürhapter-Rieger, Alfred

AU - Ahammer, Helmut

AU - Lohman, Timothy G.

AU - Meyer, Nanna L.

AU - Sardinha, Luis B.

AU - Stewart, Arthur D.

AU - Maughan, Ronald J.

AU - Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

AU - Müller, Tom

AU - Harris, Margaret

AU - Kirihennedige, Nuwanee

AU - Magalhaes, Joao P.

AU - Melo, Xavier

AU - Pirstinger, Wolfram

AU - Reguant-Closa, Alba

AU - Risoul-Salas, Vanessa

AU - Ackland, Timothy R.

N1 - The IOC Medical Commission supported travelling and meetings of the Working Group on Body Composition, Health and Performance (*). Open access funding provided by Medical University of Graz.

PY - 2019/9/30

Y1 - 2019/9/30

N2 - Introduction: Fat is a metabolic fuel, but excess body fat is ballast mass, and therefore, many elite athletes reduce body fat to dangerously low levels. Uncompressed subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thickness measured by brightness-mode ultrasound (US) provides an estimate of body fat content. Methods: The accuracy for determining tissue borders is about 0.1–0.2 mm and reliability (experienced measurers) was within ± 1.4 mm (95% limit of agreement, LOA). We present here inter- and intra-measurer scores of three experienced US measurers from each of the centres C1 and C2, and of three novice measurers from each of the centres C3–C5. Each of the five centres measured 16 competitive adult athletes of national or international level, except for one centre where the number was 12. The following sports were included: artistic gymnastics, judo, pentathlon, power lifting, rowing, kayak, soccer, tennis, rugby, basketball, field hockey, water polo, volleyball, American football, triathlon, swimming, cycling, long-distance running, mid-distance running, hurdles, cross-country skiing, snowboarding, and ice hockey. SAT contour was detected semi-automatically: typically, 100 thicknesses of SAT at a given site (i.e., in a given image), with and without fibrous structures, were measured. Results: At SAT thickness sums DI (of eight standardised sites) between 6.0 and 70.0 mm, the LOA of experienced measurers was 1.2 mm, and the intra-class correlation coefficient ICC was 0.998; novice measurers: 3.1 mm and 0.988. Intra-measurer differences were similar. The median DI value of all 39 female participants was 51 mm (11% fibrous structures) compared to 17 mm (18%) in the 37 male participants. Discussion: DI measurement accuracy and precision enables detection of fat mass changes of approximately 0.2 kg. Such reliability has not been reached with any other method. Although females’ median body mass index and mass index were lower than those of males, females’ median DI was three times higher, and their percentage of fibrous structures was lower. The standardised US method provides a highly accurate and reliable tool for measuring SAT and thus changes in body fat, but training of measurers is important.

AB - Introduction: Fat is a metabolic fuel, but excess body fat is ballast mass, and therefore, many elite athletes reduce body fat to dangerously low levels. Uncompressed subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thickness measured by brightness-mode ultrasound (US) provides an estimate of body fat content. Methods: The accuracy for determining tissue borders is about 0.1–0.2 mm and reliability (experienced measurers) was within ± 1.4 mm (95% limit of agreement, LOA). We present here inter- and intra-measurer scores of three experienced US measurers from each of the centres C1 and C2, and of three novice measurers from each of the centres C3–C5. Each of the five centres measured 16 competitive adult athletes of national or international level, except for one centre where the number was 12. The following sports were included: artistic gymnastics, judo, pentathlon, power lifting, rowing, kayak, soccer, tennis, rugby, basketball, field hockey, water polo, volleyball, American football, triathlon, swimming, cycling, long-distance running, mid-distance running, hurdles, cross-country skiing, snowboarding, and ice hockey. SAT contour was detected semi-automatically: typically, 100 thicknesses of SAT at a given site (i.e., in a given image), with and without fibrous structures, were measured. Results: At SAT thickness sums DI (of eight standardised sites) between 6.0 and 70.0 mm, the LOA of experienced measurers was 1.2 mm, and the intra-class correlation coefficient ICC was 0.998; novice measurers: 3.1 mm and 0.988. Intra-measurer differences were similar. The median DI value of all 39 female participants was 51 mm (11% fibrous structures) compared to 17 mm (18%) in the 37 male participants. Discussion: DI measurement accuracy and precision enables detection of fat mass changes of approximately 0.2 kg. Such reliability has not been reached with any other method. Although females’ median body mass index and mass index were lower than those of males, females’ median DI was three times higher, and their percentage of fibrous structures was lower. The standardised US method provides a highly accurate and reliable tool for measuring SAT and thus changes in body fat, but training of measurers is important.

U2 - 10.1007/s40279-019-01192-9

DO - 10.1007/s40279-019-01192-9

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85074081045

VL - First Online

JO - Sports Medicine

JF - Sports Medicine

SN - 0112-1642

ER -

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