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Research at St Andrews

Reproductive cycles of marine mammals

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Marine mammals conform to the general mammalian reproductive system centered on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Most marine mammals are long-lived and of large body size with lesser reproductive rates than many other animals, a consequence of their interaction with the marine environment where the demands of acquiring resources from the ocean must be balanced with the need for bearing offspring in a suitable place for survival. The degree of spatial and temporal separation of these life history phases in many species is a key feature of their ecology. The reproductive physiology of pinnipeds, cetaceans, sirenians, sea otters and polar bears has been more thoroughly characterized for the more accessible species.



Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)184-193
Number of pages10
JournalAnimal Reproduction Science
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2011

    Research areas

  • Dolphins, Marine mammal, Reproductive cycles, Seals, Whales

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ID: 243534206