Skip to content

Research at St Andrews

Retention and silencing of prepro-GnRH-II and type II GnRH receptor genes in mammals.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

DOI

Abstract

The decapeptide hormone GnRH-I and the type I GnRH receptor drive the reproductive hormonal cascade in mammals by stimulating synthesis and secretion of LH and FSH. Mammals possess a second GnRH system composed of a related hormone, GnRH-II, (differing from GnRH-I by three amino acid residues) and the type II GnRH receptor. In many mammalian species one or both of the GnRH-II system genes are disrupted or deleted, rendering their products non-functional. This includes humans who possess a gene encoding GnRH-II but lack a functional type II GnRH receptor. Here we examined the genes encoding prepro-GnRH-II (GnRH2) and the type II GnRH receptor (GnRHR2) in more than 20 mammalian species, encompassing 10 orders, to determine whether they encode functional proteins. The structural organisation of both genes in most mammalian genome sequence assemblies was poorly annotated or incompletely described. Our findings show significant variation in the DNA sequence conservation and functional status of each gene, even between closely related species. Prepro-GnRH-II was functionally compromised in 12 / 22 species and the type II GnRH receptor gene was disrupted in 14 / 22 species. Retention of large sections of each gene in most mammalian genomes suggests that mammalian ancestors had a functional GnRH-II system. Gene disruptions were due to a spectrum of mutations which must have occurred independently after the evolutionary divergence of mammals from ancestral animals. The genetic information will be useful for understanding the physiological role of the GnRH-II system and establishing animal models for functional studies.
Close

Details

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)416-432
Number of pages17
JournalNeuroendocrinology
Volume90
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2009

Discover related content
Find related publications, people, projects and more using interactive charts.

View graph of relations

Related by author

  1. Leptin and obesity

    Obradovic, M., Sudar-Milovanovic, E., Soskic, S., Essack, M., Arya, S., Stewart, A. J., Gojobori, T. & Isenovic, E. R., 30 Apr 2021, (Accepted/In press) In: Frontiers in Endocrinology.

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

  2. Albumin-mediated alteration of plasma zinc speciation by fatty acids modulates blood clotting in type-2 diabetes

    Sobczak, A. I. S., Katundu, K. G. H., Phoenix, F. A., Khazaipoul, S., Yu, R., Lampiao, F., Stefanowicz, F., Blindauer, C. A., Pitt, S. J., Smith, T. K., Ajjan, R. A. & Stewart, A. J., 21 Mar 2021, In: Chemical Science. 12, 11, p. 4079-4093 15 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  3. Ablation of Enpp6 results in transient bone hypomineralization

    Dillon, S., Suchacki, K., Hsu, S-N., Stephen, L. A., Wang, R., Cawthorn, W. P., Stewart, A. J., Nudelman, F., Morton, N. M. & Farquharson, C., Feb 2021, In: JBMR Plus. 5, 2, 11 p., e10439.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Related by journal

  1. Medial amygdala Kiss1 neurons mediate female pheromone stimulation of luteinizing hormone in male mice

    Aggarwal, S., Tang, C., Sing, K., Kim, H. W., Millar, R. P. & Tello, J. A., Apr 2019, In: Neuroendocrinology. 108, 3, p. 172–189 18 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  2. Kisspeptin restores pulsatile LH secretion in patients with neurokinin B signaling deficiencies: physiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic implications

    Young, J., George, J., Tello, J., Francou, B., Bouligand, J., Guiochon-Mantel, A., Brailly-Tabard, S., Anderson, R. & Millar, R., Mar 2013, In: Neuroendocrinology. 97, 2, p. 193-202

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  3. Antiproliferative effects of GnRH agonists: prospects and problems for cancer therapy

    White, CD., Stewart, A. J., Lu, ZL., Millar, RP. & Morgan, K., Aug 2008, In: Neuroendocrinology. 88, 2, p. 67-79 13 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  4. Phospholipase C-η enzymes as putative protein kinase C and Ca2+ signalling components in neuronal and neuroendocrine tissues

    Stewart, A. J., Morgan, K., Farquharson, C. & Millar, RP., Nov 2007, In: Neuroendocrinology. 86, 4, p. 243-248 6 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

ID: 437808

Top