Skip to content

Research at St Andrews

Screening for fear of cancer recurrence: instrument validation and current status in early stage lung cancer patients

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access permissions




Fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) is one of the most distressing concerns for cancer patients. A psychometrically validated brief scale is urgently needed for use in busy clinical oncology settings. This study aimed to (1) develop and validate the 7-item fear of cancer recurrence scale Chinese version (FCR7-C), and (2) explore the severity of FCR in post-operative early-stage lung cancer patients in Taiwan.


Early-stage lung cancer patients were recruited from a medical center in Taiwan. The FCR7-C was evaluated for content and construct validity and internal consistency reliability. Construct validity of FCR7-C was determined by the empirically supported correlation and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).


A total of 160 subjects were recruited. The FCR7-C was shown to have satisfactory content validity and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.9). The uni-dimensional structure was confirmed by CFA that showed a good fit for the model. The FCR7-C score correlates positively with the degree of most of the physical symptoms, anxiety, and depression, but correlates negatively with patient age, performance status, and quality of life. We found that 81.9% of patients reported at least some FCR, with a mean FCR severity of 15.18 (SD = 7.78).


FCR7-C is a brief screening tool with good psychometrics. Patients with early-stage lung cancer still revealed mild to moderate level of FCR. Applying the FCR7-C for to screen cancer patients’ distress and further develop personalized psychological interventions would be strongly suggested.



Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of the Formosan Medical Association
VolumeIn press
Early online date31 Oct 2019
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 31 Oct 2019

    Research areas

  • Cancer, Psychological distress, Fear of cancer recurrence, Psychometrics

Discover related content
Find related publications, people, projects and more using interactive charts.

View graph of relations

Related by author

  1. Virtual reality relaxation to decrease dental anxiety: immediate effect randomized clinical trial

    Lahti, S., Suominen, A., Freeman, R., Lähteenoja, T. & Humphris, G., 21 Jan 2020, In : JDR Clinical & Translational Research. OnlineFirst, 7 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  2. Specialist breast cancer nurses' views on implementing a fear of cancer recurrence intervention in practice: a mixed methods study

    Cruickshank, S., Steele, E., Fenlon, D., Arnes, J., Banks, E. & Humphris, G., Jan 2020, In : Supportive Care in Cancer. 28, 1, p. 201–210 10 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  3. Association of depression and anxiety with different aspects of dental anxiety in pregnant mothers and their partners

    Lahiti, S. M., Tolvanen, M. M., Humphris, G. M., Freeman, R., Rantavuori, K., Karlsson, L. & Karlsson, H., 6 Dec 2019, In : Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology. Early View

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  4. Identifying the key characteristics of clinical fear of cancer recurrence: an international Delphi study

    Mutsaers, B., Butow, P., Dinkel, A., Humphris, G. M., Maheu, C., Ozakinci, G., Prins, J., Sharpe, L., Smith, A. B. & Lebel, S., 25 Nov 2019, In : Psycho-Oncology. Early View

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  5. Recording communication in primary dental practice: an exploratory study of interactions between dental health professionals, children and parents

    Yuan, S., Humphris, G. M., Ross, A., MacPherson, L. & Freeman, R., 22 Nov 2019, In : British Dental Journal. 227, 10, p. 887–892

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

ID: 263664102