Skip to content

Research at St Andrews

Six transiting planets and a chain of Laplace resonances in TOI-178

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Author(s)

A. Leleu, Y. Alibert, N. C. Hara, M. J. Hooton, T. G. Wilson, P. Robutel, J.-B. Delisle, J. Laskar, S. Hoyer, C. Lovis, E. M. Bryant, E. Ducrot, J. Cabrera, L. Delrez, J. S. Acton, V. Adibekyan, R. Allart, C. Allende Prieto, R. Alonso, D. Alves & 135 more D. R. Anderson, D. Angerhausen, G. Anglada Escudé, J. Asquier, D. Barrado, S. C. C. Barros, W. Baumjohann, D. Bayliss, M. Beck, T. Beck, A. Bekkelien, W. Benz, N. Billot, A. Bonfanti, X. Bonfils, F. Bouchy, V. Bourrier, G. Boué, A. Brandeker, C. Broeg, M. Buder, A. Burdanov, M. R. Burleigh, T. Bárczy, A. C. Cameron, S. Chamberlain, S. Charnoz, B. F. Cooke, C. Corral Van Damme, A. C. M. Correia, S. Cristiani, M. Damasso, M. B. Davies, M. Deleuil, O. D. S. Demangeon, B.-O. Demory, P. Di Marcantonio, G. Di Persio, X. Dumusque, D. Ehrenreich, A. Erikson, P. Figueira, A. Fortier, L. Fossati, M. Fridlund, D. Futyan, D. Gandolfi, A. García Muñoz, L. J. Garcia, S. Gill, E. Gillen, M. Gillon, M. R. Goad, J. I. González Hernández, M. Guedel, M. N. Günther, J. Haldemann, B. Henderson, K. Heng, A. E. Hogan, K. Isaak, E. Jehin, J. S. Jenkins, A. Jordán, L. Kiss, M. H. Kristiansen, K. Lam, B. Lavie, A. Lecavelier des Etangs, M. Lendl, J. Lillo-Box, G. Lo Curto, D. Magrin, C. J. A. P. Martins, P. F. L. Maxted, J. McCormac, A. Mehner, G. Micela, P. Molaro, M. Moyano, C. A. Murray, V. Nascimbeni, N. J. Nunes, G. Olofsson, H. P. Osborn, M. Oshagh, R. Ottensamer, I. Pagano, E. Pallé, P. P. Pedersen, F. A. Pepe, C. M. Persson, G. Peter, G. Piotto, G. Polenta, D. Pollacco, E. Poretti, F. J. Pozuelos, D. Queloz, R. Ragazzoni, N. Rando, F. Ratti, H. Rauer, L. Raynard, R. Rebolo, C. Reimers, I. Ribas, N. C. Santos, G. Scandariato, J. Schneider, D. Sebastian, M. Sestovic, A. E. Simon, A. M. S. Smith, S. G. Sousa, A. Sozzetti, M. Steller, A. Suárez Mascareño, Gy. M. Szabó, D. Ségransan, N. Thomas, S. Thompson, R. H. Tilbrook, A. Triaud, O. Turner, S. Udry, V. Van Grootel, H. Venus, F. Verrecchia, J. I. Vines, N. A. Walton, R. G. West, P. J. Wheatley, D. Wolter, M. R. Zapatero Osorio

School/Research organisations

Abstract

Determining the architecture of multi-planetary systems is one of the cornerstones of understanding planet formation and evolution. Resonant systems are especially important as the fragility of their orbital configuration ensures that no significant scattering or collisional event has taken place since the earliest formation phase when the parent protoplanetary disc was still present. In this context, TOI-178 has been the subject of particular attention since the first TESS observations hinted at the possible presence of a near 2:3:3 resonant chain. Here we report the results of observations from CHEOPS, ESPRESSO, NGTS, and SPECULOOS with the aim of deciphering the peculiar orbital architecture of the system. We show that TOI-178 harbours at least six planets in the super-Earth to mini-Neptune regimes, with radii ranging from 1.152-0.070+0.073to 2.87-0.13+0.14Earth radii and periods of 1.91, 3.24, 6.56, 9.96, 15.23, and 20.71 days. All planets but the innermost one form a 2:4:6:9:12 chain of Laplace resonances, and the planetary densities show important variations from planet to planet, jumping from 1.02-0.23+0.28to 0.177-0.061+0.055times the Earth's density between planets c and d. Using Bayesian interior structure retrieval models, we show that the amount of gas in the planets does not vary in a monotonous way, contrary to what one would expect from simple formation and evolution models and unlike other known systems in a chain of Laplace resonances. The brightness of TOI-178 (H = 8.76 mag, J = 9.37 mag, V = 11.95 mag) allows for a precise characterisation of its orbital architecture as well as of the physical nature of the six presently known transiting planets it harbours. The peculiar orbital configuration and the diversity in average density among the planets in the system will enable the study of interior planetary structures and atmospheric evolution, providing important clues on the formation of super-Earths and mini-Neptunes.

Close

Details

Original languageEnglish
Article numberA26
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Volume649
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 May 2021

    Research areas

  • Celestial mechanics, Planets and satellites: detection, Planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability, Techniques: photometric, Techniques: spectroscopic

Discover related content
Find related publications, people, projects and more using interactive charts.

View graph of relations

Related by author

  1. Transit detection of the long-period volatile-rich super-Earth ν2 Lupi d with CHEOPS

    Delrez, L., Ehrenreich, D., Alibert, Y., Bonfanti, A., Borsato, L., Fossati, L., Hooton, M. J., Hoyer, S., Pozuelos, F. J., Salmon, S., Sulis, S., Wilson, T. G., Adibekyan, V., Bourrier, V., Brandeker, A., Charnoz, S., Deline, A., Guterman, P., Haldemann, J., Hara, N. & 58 others, Oshagh, M., Sousa, S. G., Van Grootel, V., Alonso, R., Anglada-Escudé, G., Bárczy, T., Barrado, D., Barros, S. C. C., Baumjohann, W., Beck, M., Bekkelien, A., Benz, W., Billot, N., Bonfils, X., Broeg, C., Cabrera, J., Collier Cameron, A., Davies, M. B., Deleuil, M., Delisle, J-B., Demangeon, O. D. S., Demory, B-O., Erikson, A., Fortier, A., Fridlund, M., Futyan, D., Gandolfi, D., Garcia Muñoz, A., Gillon, M., Guedel, M., Heng, K., Kiss, L., Laskar, J., Lecavelier des Etangs, A., Lendl, M., Lovis, C., Maxted, P. F. L., Nascimbeni, V., Olofsson, G., Osborn, H. P., Pagano, I., Pallé, E., Piotto, G., Pollacco, D., Queloz, D., Rauer, H., Ragazzoni, R., Ribas, I., Santos, N. C., Scandariato, G., Ségransan, D., Simon, A. E., Smith, A. M. S., Steller, M., Szabó, G. M., Thomas, N., Udry, S. & Walton, N. A., 28 Jun 2021, In: Nature Astronomy. 13 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalLetterpeer-review

  2. A search for transiting planets around hot subdwarfs: I. Methods and performance tests on light curves from Kepler, K2, TESS, and CHEOPS

    Van Grootel, V., Pozuelos, F. J., Thuillier, A., Charpinet, S., Delrez, L., Beck, M., Fortier, A., Hoyer, S., Sousa, S. G., Barlow, B. N., Billot, N., Dévora-Pajares, M., Østensen, R. H., Alibert, Y., Alonso, R., Anglada Escudé, G., Asquier, J., Barrado, D., Barros, S. C. C., Baumjohann, W. & 62 others, Beck, T., Bekkelien, A., Benz, W., Bonfils, X., Brandeker, A., Broeg, C., Bruno, G., Bárczy, T., Cabrera, J., Cameron, A. C., Charnoz, S., Davies, M. B., Deleuil, M., Demangeon, O. D. S., Demory, B-O., Ehrenreich, D., Erikson, A., Fossati, L., Fridlund, M., Futyan, D., Gandolfi, D., Gillon, M., Guedel, M., Heng, K., Isaak, K. G., Kiss, L., Laskar, J., Lecavelier Des Etangs, A., Lendl, M., Lovis, C., Magrin, D., Maxted, P. F. L., Mecina, M., Mustill, A. J., Nascimbeni, V., Olofsson, G., Ottensamer, R., Pagano, I., Pallé, E., Peter, G., Piotto, G., Plesseria, J-Y., Pollacco, D., Queloz, D., Ragazzoni, R., Rando, N., Rauer, H., Ribas, I., Santos, N. C., Scandariato, G., Ségransan, D., Silvotti, R., Simon, A. E., Smith, A. M. S., Steller, M., Szabó, G. M., Thomas, N., Udry, S., Viotto, V., Walton, N. A., Westerdorff, K. & Wilson, T. G., Jun 2021, In: Astronomy and Astrophysics. 650, 19 p., A205.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  3. Three years of HARPS-N high-resolution spectroscopy and precise radial velocity data for the Sun

    Dumusque, X., Cretignier, M., Sosnowska, D., Buchschacher, N., Lovis, C., Phillips, D. F., Pepe, F., Alesina, F., Buchhave, L. A., Burnier, J., Cecconi, M., Cegla, H. M., Cloutier, R., Collier Cameron, A., Cosentino, R., Ghedina, A., González, M., Haywood, R. D., Latham, D. W., Lodi, M. & 18 others, López-Morales, M., Maldonado, J., Malavolta, L., Micela, G., Molinari, E., Mortier, A., Pérez Ventura, H., Pinamonti, M., Poretti, E., Rice, K., Riverol, L., Riverol, C., San Juan, J., Ségransan, D., Sozzetti, A., Thompson, S. J., Udry, S. & Wilson, T. G., Apr 2021, In: Astronomy and Astrophysics. 648, 19 p., A103.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  4. An unusually low density ultra-short period super-Earth and three mini-Neptunes around the old star TOI-561

    Lacedelli, G., Malavolta, L., Borsato, L., Piotto, G., Nardiello, D., Mortier, A., Stalport, M., Cameron, A. C., Poretti, E., Buchhave, L. A., López-Morales, M., Nascimbeni, V., Wilson, T. G., Udry, S., Latham, D. W., Bonomo, A. S., Damasso, M., Dumusque, X., Jenkins, J. M., Lovis, C. & 21 others, Rice, K., Sasselov, D., Winn, J. N., Andreuzzi, G., Cosentino, R., Charbonneau, D., Di Fabrizio, L., Martinez Fiorenzano, A. F., Ghedina, A., Harutyunyan, A., Lienhard, F., Micela, G., Molinari, E., Pagano, I., Pepe, F., Phillips, D. F., Pinamonti, M., Ricker, G., Scandariato, G., Sozzetti, A. & Watson, C. A., Mar 2021, In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 501, 3, p. 4148–4166

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  5. CHEOPS observations of the HD 108236 planetary system: A fifth planet, improved ephemerides, and planetary radii

    Bonfanti, A., Delrez, L., Hooton, M. J., Wilson, T. G., Fossati, L., Alibert, Y., Hoyer, S., Mustill, A. J., Osborn, H. P., Adibekyan, V., Gandolfi, D., Salmon, S., Sousa, S. G., Tuson, A., Van Grootel, V., Cabrera, J., Nascimbeni, V., Maxted, P. F. L., Barros, S. C. C., Billot, N. & 89 others, Bonfils, X., Borsato, L., Broeg, C., Davies, M. B., Deleuil, M., Demangeon, O. D. S., Fridlund, M., Lacedelli, G., Lendl, M., Persson, C., Santos, N. C., Scandariato, G., Szabó, G. M., Collier Cameron, A., Udry, S., Benz, W., Beck, M., Ehrenreich, D., Fortier, A., Isaak, K. G., Queloz, D., Alonso, R., Asquier, J., Bandy, T., Bárczy, T., Barrado, D., Barragán, O., Baumjohann, W., Beck, T., Bekkelien, A., Bergomi, M., Brandeker, A., Busch, M-D., Cessa, V., Charnoz, S., Chazelas, B., Corral Van Damme, C., Demory, B-O., Erikson, A., Farinato, J., Futyan, D., Garcia Muñoz, A., Gillon, M., Guedel, M., Guterman, P., Hasiba, J., Heng, K., Hernandez, E., Kiss, L., Kuntzer, T., Laskar, J., Lecavelier des Etangs, A., Lovis, C., Magrin, D., Malvasio, L., Marafatto, L., Michaelis, H., Munari, M., Olofsson, G., Ottacher, H., Ottensamer, R., Pagano, I., Pallé, E., Peter, G., Piazza, D., Piotto, G., Pollacco, D., Ragazzoni, R., Rando, N., Ratti, F., Rauer, H., Ribas, I., Rieder, M., Rohlfs, R., Safa, F., Salatti, M., Ségransan, D., Simon, A. E., Smith, A. M. S., Sordet, M., Steller, M., Thomas, N., Tschentscher, M., Van Eylen, V., Viotto, V., Walter, I., Walton, N. A., Wildi, F. & Wolter, D., Feb 2021, In: Astronomy and Astrophysics. 646, 19 p., A157.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Related by journal

  1. Determining the source and eruption dynamics of a stealth CME using NLFFF modelling and MHD simulations

    Yardley, S. L., Pagano, P., Mackay, D. H. & Upton, L., 28 Jun 2021, (Accepted/In press) In: Astronomy & Astrophysics.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  2. An ultra-short-period transiting super-Earth orbiting the M3 dwarf TOI-1685

    Bluhm, P., Palle, E., Molaverdikhani, K., Kemmer, J., Hatzes, A. P., Kossakowski, D., Stock, S., Caballero, J. A., Lillo-Box, J., Bejar, V. J. S. ., Soto, M. G., Amado, P. J., Brown, P., Cadieux, C., Cloutier, R., Collins, K. A., Collins, K. I., Cortes-Contreras, M., Doyon, R., Dreizler, S. & 34 others, Espinoza, N., Fukui, A., Gonzalez-Alvarez, E., Henning, T., Horne, K., Jeffers, S. V., Jenkins, J. M., Jensen, E. L. N., Kaminski, A., Kielkopf, J. F., Kusakabe, N., Kuerster, M., Lafreniere, D., Luque, R., Murgas, F., Montes, D., Morales, J. C., Narita, N., Passegger, V. M., Quirrenbach, A., Schoefer, P., Reffert, S., Reiners, A., Ribas, I., Ricker, G. R., Seager, S., Schweitzer, A., Schwarz, R. P., Tamura, M., Trifonov, T., Vanderspek, R., Winn, J., Zechmeister, M. & Zapatero Osorio, M. R., 8 Jun 2021, In: Astronomy and Astrophysics. 650, 17 p., A78.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  3. A fast multi-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic formulation of the transition region adaptive conduction (TRAC) method

    Johnston, C. D., Hood, A. W., De Moortel, I., Pagano, P. & Howson, T. A., 1 Jun 2021, (Accepted/In press) In: Astronomy & Astrophysics.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  4. A search for transiting planets around hot subdwarfs: I. Methods and performance tests on light curves from Kepler, K2, TESS, and CHEOPS

    Van Grootel, V., Pozuelos, F. J., Thuillier, A., Charpinet, S., Delrez, L., Beck, M., Fortier, A., Hoyer, S., Sousa, S. G., Barlow, B. N., Billot, N., Dévora-Pajares, M., Østensen, R. H., Alibert, Y., Alonso, R., Anglada Escudé, G., Asquier, J., Barrado, D., Barros, S. C. C., Baumjohann, W. & 62 others, Beck, T., Bekkelien, A., Benz, W., Bonfils, X., Brandeker, A., Broeg, C., Bruno, G., Bárczy, T., Cabrera, J., Cameron, A. C., Charnoz, S., Davies, M. B., Deleuil, M., Demangeon, O. D. S., Demory, B-O., Ehrenreich, D., Erikson, A., Fossati, L., Fridlund, M., Futyan, D., Gandolfi, D., Gillon, M., Guedel, M., Heng, K., Isaak, K. G., Kiss, L., Laskar, J., Lecavelier Des Etangs, A., Lendl, M., Lovis, C., Magrin, D., Maxted, P. F. L., Mecina, M., Mustill, A. J., Nascimbeni, V., Olofsson, G., Ottensamer, R., Pagano, I., Pallé, E., Peter, G., Piotto, G., Plesseria, J-Y., Pollacco, D., Queloz, D., Ragazzoni, R., Rando, N., Rauer, H., Ribas, I., Santos, N. C., Scandariato, G., Ségransan, D., Silvotti, R., Simon, A. E., Smith, A. M. S., Steller, M., Szabó, G. M., Thomas, N., Udry, S., Viotto, V., Walton, N. A., Westerdorff, K. & Wilson, T. G., Jun 2021, In: Astronomy and Astrophysics. 650, 19 p., A205.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  5. New low-mass members of Chamaeleon I and ϵ Cha

    Kubiak, K., Mužić, K., Sousa, I., Almendros-Abad, V., Köhler, R. & Scholz, A., Jun 2021, In: Astronomy and Astrophysics. 650, 17 p., A48.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Related by journal

  1. Astronomy & Astrophysics (Journal)

    Duncan Hendry Mackay (Editor)

    2004 → …

    Activity: Publication peer-review and editorial work typesEditor of research journal

  2. Astronomy & Astrophysics (Journal)

    Christiane Helling (Editor)

    2000 → …

    Activity: Publication peer-review and editorial work typesEditor of research journal

  3. Astronomy & Astrophysics (Journal)

    Alan William Hood (Editor)

    1980 → …

    Activity: Publication peer-review and editorial work typesEditor of research journal

ID: 274373006

Top