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Studying diving energetics of trained Steller sea lions in the open sea

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Gordon D. Hastie, David A. S. Rosen, Andrew W. Trites

School/Research organisations


The costs associated with diving are a central component of a sea lion's energy budget. Accurate estimates of diving costs are needed to assess energetic and physiological constraints on foraging behavior, including the potential effects of changes in prey distribution or density. However, information on sea lion diving physiology is limited to relatively few species of pinnipeds, and there is currently no information for Steller sea lions. Information on diving energetics of pinnipeds has traditionally been gathered using either wild or captive animals. Studies with wild animals are logistically challenging and are limited by the opportunistic nature of data collection, while studies in captivity have been constrained by the physical restrictions of the holding facility. To circumvent some of these limitations, we combined the best aspects of both techniques by conducting diving metabolism studies with trained Steller sea lions in an open ocean environment. Two captive-reared Steller sea lions were housed in a holding pen and transported by boat to a diving trial area. The animals were trained to dive to predetermined depths for controlled periods of time using an underwater light targeting system and a video system to monitor behavior. At the end of each dive the sea lions returned to a respirometry dome on the surface where oxygen consumption was measured to estimate diving metabolism. This paper describes the experimental setup used to evaluate diving metabolism, discusses the logistical challenges of the study and the advantages of using such an approach to carry out physiological experiments with sea lions, and provides preliminary data on the diving energetics of Steller sea lions.



Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSea Lions of the World
EditorsAW Trites, SK Atkinson, DP DeMaster, LW Fritz, TS Gelatt, LD Rea, KM Wynne
Place of PublicationFairbanks
PublisherAlaska Sea Grant College Program
Number of pages12
ISBN (Print)1-56612-105-1
Publication statusPublished - 2006
Event22nd Lowell Wakefield Fisheries Symposium on Sea Lions of the World - Anchorage
Duration: 30 Sep 20043 Oct 2004


Conference22nd Lowell Wakefield Fisheries Symposium on Sea Lions of the World

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ID: 35076855