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Swimming gaits, passive drag and buoyancy of diving sperm whales Physeter macrocephalus.

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Swimming gaits, passive drag and buoyancy of diving sperm whales Physeter macrocephalus. / Miller, Patrick; Johnson, Mark; Tyack, Peter Lloyd; Terray, E.A.

In: Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 207, No. 11, 05.2004, p. 1953-1967.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harvard

Miller, P, Johnson, M, Tyack, PL & Terray, EA 2004, 'Swimming gaits, passive drag and buoyancy of diving sperm whales Physeter macrocephalus.' Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 207, no. 11, pp. 1953-1967. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.00993

APA

Miller, P., Johnson, M., Tyack, P. L., & Terray, E. A. (2004). Swimming gaits, passive drag and buoyancy of diving sperm whales Physeter macrocephalus. Journal of Experimental Biology, 207(11), 1953-1967. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.00993

Vancouver

Miller P, Johnson M, Tyack PL, Terray EA. Swimming gaits, passive drag and buoyancy of diving sperm whales Physeter macrocephalus. Journal of Experimental Biology. 2004 May;207(11):1953-1967. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.00993

Author

Miller, Patrick ; Johnson, Mark ; Tyack, Peter Lloyd ; Terray, E.A. / Swimming gaits, passive drag and buoyancy of diving sperm whales Physeter macrocephalus. In: Journal of Experimental Biology. 2004 ; Vol. 207, No. 11. pp. 1953-1967.

Bibtex - Download

@article{bc3e8e75f1b34a8f8742f7747350e916,
title = "Swimming gaits, passive drag and buoyancy of diving sperm whales Physeter macrocephalus.",
abstract = "Drag and buoyancy are two primary external forces acting on diving marine mammals. The strength of these forces modulates the energetic cost of movement and may influence swimming style (gait). Here we use a high-resolution digital tag to record depth, 3-D orientation, and sounds heard and produced by 23 deep-diving sperm whales in the Ligurian Sea and Gulf of Mexico. Periods of active thrusting versus gliding were identified through analysis of oscillations measured by a 3-axis accelerometer. Accelerations during 382 ascent glides of five whales (which made two or more steep ascents and for which we obtained a measurement of length) were strongly affected by depth and speed at Reynold's numbers of 1.4-2.8x10(7). The accelerations fit a model of drag, air buoyancy and tissue buoyancy forces with an r(2) of 99.1-99.8{\%} for each whale. The model provided estimates (mean +/- S.D.) of the drag coefficient (0.00306+/-0.00015), air carried from the surface (26.4+/-3.9 l kg(-3) mass), and tissue density (1030+/-0.8 kg m(-3)) of these five animals. The model predicts strong positive buoyancy forces in the top 100 in of the water column, decreasing to near neutral buoyancy at 250-850 m. Mean descent speeds (1.45+/-0.19 m s(-1)) were slower than ascent speeds (1.63+/-0.22 m s(-1)), even though sperm whales stroked steadily (glides 5.3+/-6.3{\%}) throughout descents and employed predominantly stroke-and-glide swimming (glides 37.7+/-16.4{\%}) during ascents. Whales glided more during portions of dives when buoyancy aided their movement, and whales that glided more during ascent glided less during descent (and vice versa), supporting the hypothesis that buoyancy influences behavioural swimming decisions. One whale rested at similar to10 m depth for more than 10 min without fluking, regulating its buoyancy by releasing air bubbles.",
keywords = "drag, buoyancy, sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus, swimming gait, diving, MARINE MAMMALS, BODY-FAT, SEALS, BEHAVIOR, ORGAN, DEPTH, COST, TAG, PROPULSION, CETACEANS",
author = "Patrick Miller and Mark Johnson and Tyack, {Peter Lloyd} and E.A. Terray",
year = "2004",
month = "5",
doi = "10.1242/jeb.00993",
language = "English",
volume = "207",
pages = "1953--1967",
journal = "Journal of Experimental Biology",
issn = "0022-0949",
publisher = "Company of Biologists Ltd",
number = "11",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) - Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - Swimming gaits, passive drag and buoyancy of diving sperm whales Physeter macrocephalus.

AU - Miller, Patrick

AU - Johnson, Mark

AU - Tyack, Peter Lloyd

AU - Terray, E.A.

PY - 2004/5

Y1 - 2004/5

N2 - Drag and buoyancy are two primary external forces acting on diving marine mammals. The strength of these forces modulates the energetic cost of movement and may influence swimming style (gait). Here we use a high-resolution digital tag to record depth, 3-D orientation, and sounds heard and produced by 23 deep-diving sperm whales in the Ligurian Sea and Gulf of Mexico. Periods of active thrusting versus gliding were identified through analysis of oscillations measured by a 3-axis accelerometer. Accelerations during 382 ascent glides of five whales (which made two or more steep ascents and for which we obtained a measurement of length) were strongly affected by depth and speed at Reynold's numbers of 1.4-2.8x10(7). The accelerations fit a model of drag, air buoyancy and tissue buoyancy forces with an r(2) of 99.1-99.8% for each whale. The model provided estimates (mean +/- S.D.) of the drag coefficient (0.00306+/-0.00015), air carried from the surface (26.4+/-3.9 l kg(-3) mass), and tissue density (1030+/-0.8 kg m(-3)) of these five animals. The model predicts strong positive buoyancy forces in the top 100 in of the water column, decreasing to near neutral buoyancy at 250-850 m. Mean descent speeds (1.45+/-0.19 m s(-1)) were slower than ascent speeds (1.63+/-0.22 m s(-1)), even though sperm whales stroked steadily (glides 5.3+/-6.3%) throughout descents and employed predominantly stroke-and-glide swimming (glides 37.7+/-16.4%) during ascents. Whales glided more during portions of dives when buoyancy aided their movement, and whales that glided more during ascent glided less during descent (and vice versa), supporting the hypothesis that buoyancy influences behavioural swimming decisions. One whale rested at similar to10 m depth for more than 10 min without fluking, regulating its buoyancy by releasing air bubbles.

AB - Drag and buoyancy are two primary external forces acting on diving marine mammals. The strength of these forces modulates the energetic cost of movement and may influence swimming style (gait). Here we use a high-resolution digital tag to record depth, 3-D orientation, and sounds heard and produced by 23 deep-diving sperm whales in the Ligurian Sea and Gulf of Mexico. Periods of active thrusting versus gliding were identified through analysis of oscillations measured by a 3-axis accelerometer. Accelerations during 382 ascent glides of five whales (which made two or more steep ascents and for which we obtained a measurement of length) were strongly affected by depth and speed at Reynold's numbers of 1.4-2.8x10(7). The accelerations fit a model of drag, air buoyancy and tissue buoyancy forces with an r(2) of 99.1-99.8% for each whale. The model provided estimates (mean +/- S.D.) of the drag coefficient (0.00306+/-0.00015), air carried from the surface (26.4+/-3.9 l kg(-3) mass), and tissue density (1030+/-0.8 kg m(-3)) of these five animals. The model predicts strong positive buoyancy forces in the top 100 in of the water column, decreasing to near neutral buoyancy at 250-850 m. Mean descent speeds (1.45+/-0.19 m s(-1)) were slower than ascent speeds (1.63+/-0.22 m s(-1)), even though sperm whales stroked steadily (glides 5.3+/-6.3%) throughout descents and employed predominantly stroke-and-glide swimming (glides 37.7+/-16.4%) during ascents. Whales glided more during portions of dives when buoyancy aided their movement, and whales that glided more during ascent glided less during descent (and vice versa), supporting the hypothesis that buoyancy influences behavioural swimming decisions. One whale rested at similar to10 m depth for more than 10 min without fluking, regulating its buoyancy by releasing air bubbles.

KW - drag

KW - buoyancy

KW - sperm whale

KW - Physeter macrocephalus

KW - swimming gait

KW - diving

KW - MARINE MAMMALS

KW - BODY-FAT

KW - SEALS

KW - BEHAVIOR

KW - ORGAN

KW - DEPTH

KW - COST

KW - TAG

KW - PROPULSION

KW - CETACEANS

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=3042637777&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1242/jeb.00993

DO - 10.1242/jeb.00993

M3 - Article

VL - 207

SP - 1953

EP - 1967

JO - Journal of Experimental Biology

T2 - Journal of Experimental Biology

JF - Journal of Experimental Biology

SN - 0022-0949

IS - 11

ER -

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ID: 363821