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Targeting pattern recognition receptors (PRR) for vaccine adjuvantation: from synthetic PRR agonists to the potential of Defective Interfering Particles (DIPs) of viruses

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Author(s)

Andri Vasou, Nazife Sultanoglu , Stephen Goodbourn, Richard Edward Randall, Leondios G. Kostrikis

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Abstract

Modern vaccinology has increasingly focused on non-living vaccines, which are more stable than live-attenuated vaccines but often show limited immunogenicity. Immunostimulatory substances, known as adjuvants, are traditionally used to increase the magnitude of protective adaptive immunity in response to a pathogen-associated antigen. Recently developed adjuvants often include substances that stimulate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), essential components of innate immunity required for the activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), which serve as a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity. Nearly all PRRs are potential targets for adjuvants. Given the recent success of toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in vaccine development, molecules with similar, but additional, immunostimulatory activity, such as defective interfering particles (DIPs) of viruses, represent attractive candidates for vaccine adjuvants. This review outlines some of the recent advances in vaccine development related to the use of TLR agonists, summarizes the current knowledge regarding DIP immunogenicity, and discusses the potential applications of DIPs in vaccine adjuvantation.
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Original languageEnglish
Article number186
JournalViruses
Volume9
Issue number7
Early online date13 Jul 2017
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2017

    Research areas

  • Defective interfering particles, Defective viral genomes, Innate immunity, Vaccine adjuvants, Pattern recognition receptor agonists

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