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The 20-Hz signals of finback whales (Balaenoptera physalus)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

DOI

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The 20-Hz signals of finback whales (Balaenoptera physalus). / Watkins, William A.; Tyack, Peter; Moore, Karen E.; Bird, James E.

In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 82, No. 6, 01.01.1987, p. 1901-1912.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Harvard

Watkins, WA, Tyack, P, Moore, KE & Bird, JE 1987, 'The 20-Hz signals of finback whales (Balaenoptera physalus)', Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 1901-1912. https://doi.org/10.1121/1.395685

APA

Watkins, W. A., Tyack, P., Moore, K. E., & Bird, J. E. (1987). The 20-Hz signals of finback whales (Balaenoptera physalus). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 82(6), 1901-1912. https://doi.org/10.1121/1.395685

Vancouver

Watkins WA, Tyack P, Moore KE, Bird JE. The 20-Hz signals of finback whales (Balaenoptera physalus). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 1987 Jan 1;82(6):1901-1912. https://doi.org/10.1121/1.395685

Author

Watkins, William A. ; Tyack, Peter ; Moore, Karen E. ; Bird, James E. / The 20-Hz signals of finback whales (Balaenoptera physalus). In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 1987 ; Vol. 82, No. 6. pp. 1901-1912.

Bibtex - Download

@article{22798086c84848b29dd41de64788513e,
title = "The 20-Hz signals of finback whales (Balaenoptera physalus)",
abstract = "The 20-Hz signals of finback whales (Balaenoptera physalus) were analyzed from more than 25 years of recordings at a variety of geographic locations on near-surface hydrophones close to whales and on deep hydrophone systems. These signals were composed of 1-s pulses of sinusoidal waveform with downward sweeping frequency from approximately 23 to 18 Hz at variable source levels up to 186 dB (re: 1 //Pa at m), usually with slightly lower levels for the pulses at the beginning and end of sequences. These “20-Hz” pulses were produced in signal bouts (separated by more than 2 h) lasting as long as 32.5 h. Bouts were composed of regularly repeated pulses at intervals of 7-26 s (typically), either at one nominal pulse rate or at two alternating (doublet) pulse intervals. Signal bouts were interrupted by rests of 1-20 min at roughly 15-min intervals and by irregular gaps lasting between 20 and 120 min. The distribution of these signals throughout the year and their temporal sequence were analyzed from the continuous drum records of the Bermuda SOFAR Station. Signal bouts occurred, during winter, sometimes beginning in September and ending in May. The sound sequences were never exactly replicated. Direct association of the bouts with the reproductive season for this species points to the 20-Hz signals as possible reproductive displays by finback whales. PACS numbers: 43.80.Lb, 43.80.Nd, 43.30.Nb.",
author = "Watkins, {William A.} and Peter Tyack and Moore, {Karen E.} and Bird, {James E.}",
year = "1987",
month = jan,
day = "1",
doi = "10.1121/1.395685",
language = "English",
volume = "82",
pages = "1901--1912",
journal = "Journal of the Acoustical Society of America",
issn = "0001-4966",
publisher = "Acoustical Society of America",
number = "6",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) - Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - The 20-Hz signals of finback whales (Balaenoptera physalus)

AU - Watkins, William A.

AU - Tyack, Peter

AU - Moore, Karen E.

AU - Bird, James E.

PY - 1987/1/1

Y1 - 1987/1/1

N2 - The 20-Hz signals of finback whales (Balaenoptera physalus) were analyzed from more than 25 years of recordings at a variety of geographic locations on near-surface hydrophones close to whales and on deep hydrophone systems. These signals were composed of 1-s pulses of sinusoidal waveform with downward sweeping frequency from approximately 23 to 18 Hz at variable source levels up to 186 dB (re: 1 //Pa at m), usually with slightly lower levels for the pulses at the beginning and end of sequences. These “20-Hz” pulses were produced in signal bouts (separated by more than 2 h) lasting as long as 32.5 h. Bouts were composed of regularly repeated pulses at intervals of 7-26 s (typically), either at one nominal pulse rate or at two alternating (doublet) pulse intervals. Signal bouts were interrupted by rests of 1-20 min at roughly 15-min intervals and by irregular gaps lasting between 20 and 120 min. The distribution of these signals throughout the year and their temporal sequence were analyzed from the continuous drum records of the Bermuda SOFAR Station. Signal bouts occurred, during winter, sometimes beginning in September and ending in May. The sound sequences were never exactly replicated. Direct association of the bouts with the reproductive season for this species points to the 20-Hz signals as possible reproductive displays by finback whales. PACS numbers: 43.80.Lb, 43.80.Nd, 43.30.Nb.

AB - The 20-Hz signals of finback whales (Balaenoptera physalus) were analyzed from more than 25 years of recordings at a variety of geographic locations on near-surface hydrophones close to whales and on deep hydrophone systems. These signals were composed of 1-s pulses of sinusoidal waveform with downward sweeping frequency from approximately 23 to 18 Hz at variable source levels up to 186 dB (re: 1 //Pa at m), usually with slightly lower levels for the pulses at the beginning and end of sequences. These “20-Hz” pulses were produced in signal bouts (separated by more than 2 h) lasting as long as 32.5 h. Bouts were composed of regularly repeated pulses at intervals of 7-26 s (typically), either at one nominal pulse rate or at two alternating (doublet) pulse intervals. Signal bouts were interrupted by rests of 1-20 min at roughly 15-min intervals and by irregular gaps lasting between 20 and 120 min. The distribution of these signals throughout the year and their temporal sequence were analyzed from the continuous drum records of the Bermuda SOFAR Station. Signal bouts occurred, during winter, sometimes beginning in September and ending in May. The sound sequences were never exactly replicated. Direct association of the bouts with the reproductive season for this species points to the 20-Hz signals as possible reproductive displays by finback whales. PACS numbers: 43.80.Lb, 43.80.Nd, 43.30.Nb.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0023465346&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1121/1.395685

DO - 10.1121/1.395685

M3 - Article

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AN - SCOPUS:0023465346

VL - 82

SP - 1901

EP - 1912

JO - Journal of the Acoustical Society of America

JF - Journal of the Acoustical Society of America

SN - 0001-4966

IS - 6

ER -

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