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The characteristics of billows generated by internal solitary waves

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The characteristics of billows generated by internal solitary waves. / Carr, Magda; Franklin, James; King, Stuart Edward; Davies, Peter; Grue, John; Dritschel, David Gerard.

In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 812, 02.2017, p. 541-577.

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Carr, M, Franklin, J, King, SE, Davies, P, Grue, J & Dritschel, DG 2017, 'The characteristics of billows generated by internal solitary waves' Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol. 812, pp. 541-577. https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2016.823

APA

Carr, M., Franklin, J., King, S. E., Davies, P., Grue, J., & Dritschel, D. G. (2017). The characteristics of billows generated by internal solitary waves. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 812, 541-577. https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2016.823

Vancouver

Carr M, Franklin J, King SE, Davies P, Grue J, Dritschel DG. The characteristics of billows generated by internal solitary waves. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 2017 Feb;812:541-577. https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2016.823

Author

Carr, Magda ; Franklin, James ; King, Stuart Edward ; Davies, Peter ; Grue, John ; Dritschel, David Gerard. / The characteristics of billows generated by internal solitary waves. In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 2017 ; Vol. 812. pp. 541-577.

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@article{debbc1478fdb4b499b38bbc4b0e969c7,
title = "The characteristics of billows generated by internal solitary waves",
abstract = "The spatial and temporal development of shear-induced overturning billows associated with breaking internal solitary waves is studied by means of a combined laboratory and numerical investigation. The waves are generated in the laboratory by a lock exchange mechanism and they are simulated numerically via a contour-advective semi-Lagrangian method. The properties of individual billows (maximum height attained, time of collapse, growth rate, speed, wavelength, Thorpe scale) are determined in each case, and the billow interaction processes are studied and classified. For broad flat waves, similar characteristics are seen to those in parallel shear flow, but, for waves not at the conjugate flow limit, billow characteristics are affected by the spatially varying wave-induced shear flow. Wave steepness and wave amplitude are shown to have a crucial influence on determining the type of interaction that occurs between billows and whether billow overturning can be arrested. Examples are given in which billows (i) evolve independently of one another, (ii) pair with one another, (iii) engulf/entrain one another and (iv) fail to completely overturn. It is shown that the vertical extent a billow can attain (and the associated Thorpe scale of the billow) is dependent on wave amplitude but that its value saturates once a given amplitude is reached. It is interesting to note that this amplitude is less than the conjugate flow limit amplitude. The number of billows that form on a wave is shown to be dependent on wavelength; shorter waves support fewer but larger billows than their long-wave counterparts for a given stratification.",
keywords = "Geophysical and geological flows, Internal waves",
author = "Magda Carr and James Franklin and King, {Stuart Edward} and Peter Davies and John Grue and Dritschel, {David Gerard}",
year = "2017",
month = "2",
doi = "10.1017/jfm.2016.823",
language = "English",
volume = "812",
pages = "541--577",
journal = "Journal of Fluid Mechanics",
issn = "0022-1120",
publisher = "CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) - Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - The characteristics of billows generated by internal solitary waves

AU - Carr, Magda

AU - Franklin, James

AU - King, Stuart Edward

AU - Davies, Peter

AU - Grue, John

AU - Dritschel, David Gerard

PY - 2017/2

Y1 - 2017/2

N2 - The spatial and temporal development of shear-induced overturning billows associated with breaking internal solitary waves is studied by means of a combined laboratory and numerical investigation. The waves are generated in the laboratory by a lock exchange mechanism and they are simulated numerically via a contour-advective semi-Lagrangian method. The properties of individual billows (maximum height attained, time of collapse, growth rate, speed, wavelength, Thorpe scale) are determined in each case, and the billow interaction processes are studied and classified. For broad flat waves, similar characteristics are seen to those in parallel shear flow, but, for waves not at the conjugate flow limit, billow characteristics are affected by the spatially varying wave-induced shear flow. Wave steepness and wave amplitude are shown to have a crucial influence on determining the type of interaction that occurs between billows and whether billow overturning can be arrested. Examples are given in which billows (i) evolve independently of one another, (ii) pair with one another, (iii) engulf/entrain one another and (iv) fail to completely overturn. It is shown that the vertical extent a billow can attain (and the associated Thorpe scale of the billow) is dependent on wave amplitude but that its value saturates once a given amplitude is reached. It is interesting to note that this amplitude is less than the conjugate flow limit amplitude. The number of billows that form on a wave is shown to be dependent on wavelength; shorter waves support fewer but larger billows than their long-wave counterparts for a given stratification.

AB - The spatial and temporal development of shear-induced overturning billows associated with breaking internal solitary waves is studied by means of a combined laboratory and numerical investigation. The waves are generated in the laboratory by a lock exchange mechanism and they are simulated numerically via a contour-advective semi-Lagrangian method. The properties of individual billows (maximum height attained, time of collapse, growth rate, speed, wavelength, Thorpe scale) are determined in each case, and the billow interaction processes are studied and classified. For broad flat waves, similar characteristics are seen to those in parallel shear flow, but, for waves not at the conjugate flow limit, billow characteristics are affected by the spatially varying wave-induced shear flow. Wave steepness and wave amplitude are shown to have a crucial influence on determining the type of interaction that occurs between billows and whether billow overturning can be arrested. Examples are given in which billows (i) evolve independently of one another, (ii) pair with one another, (iii) engulf/entrain one another and (iv) fail to completely overturn. It is shown that the vertical extent a billow can attain (and the associated Thorpe scale of the billow) is dependent on wave amplitude but that its value saturates once a given amplitude is reached. It is interesting to note that this amplitude is less than the conjugate flow limit amplitude. The number of billows that form on a wave is shown to be dependent on wavelength; shorter waves support fewer but larger billows than their long-wave counterparts for a given stratification.

KW - Geophysical and geological flows

KW - Internal waves

U2 - 10.1017/jfm.2016.823

DO - 10.1017/jfm.2016.823

M3 - Article

VL - 812

SP - 541

EP - 577

JO - Journal of Fluid Mechanics

T2 - Journal of Fluid Mechanics

JF - Journal of Fluid Mechanics

SN - 0022-1120

ER -

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ID: 249036865