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The epidemiology of Phytophthora ramorum and P.Kernoviae at two historic gardens in Scotland

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This study looked at the factors that facilitated the spread of Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae at two locations in the west of Scotland. Spore traps, river baiting, bait plants, and soil sampling were used to both confirm the presence of, and measure the amount of, inoculum in the environment in order to quantify the relationship between inoculum levels and disease development. Phytophthora ramorum was detected in spore traps at high levels under a sporulating host, but also at sites where hosts were not present, leading to the conclusion that inocula in low-level spore traps were the result of soil splash. Rhododendron and Vaccinium bait plants were also infected with P. ramorum via soil splash at sites where there was no sporulating host present. Phytophthora kernoviae was only detected in spore traps where there was a sporulating host overhead. Water baiting confirmed the presence of P. ramorum in two streams in one of the gardens, but P. kernoviae was not detected using this method at the other garden despite the large-scale P. kernoviae infection there. Inoculum continued to be detected in soil in areas where infected hosts had been removed 2 years ago, confirming that both of these pathogens can survive in soil for a considerable period. Evidence of the movement of infested mulch during horticultural activity was found. These findings have clear implications for the control of disease spread within the garden setting.


Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Fifth Science Symposium
Subtitle of host publicationGen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-243
Place of PublicationAlbany, CA, USA
PublisherU.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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