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The influence of the freshwater environment and the biological characteristics of Atlantic salmon smolts on their subsequent marine survival

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The influence of the freshwater environment and the biological characteristics of Atlantic salmon smolts on their subsequent marine survival. / Russell, Ian; Aprahamian, Miran; Barry, Jon; Davidson, Ian; Fiske, Peder; Ibbotson, Anton; Kennedy, Richard; Maclean, Julian; Moore, Andrew; Otero, Jaime; Potter, Ted; Todd, Christopher David.

In: ICES Journal of Marine Science, Vol. 69, No. 9, 2012, p. 1563-1573.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harvard

Russell, I, Aprahamian, M, Barry, J, Davidson, I, Fiske, P, Ibbotson, A, Kennedy, R, Maclean, J, Moore, A, Otero, J, Potter, T & Todd, CD 2012, 'The influence of the freshwater environment and the biological characteristics of Atlantic salmon smolts on their subsequent marine survival' ICES Journal of Marine Science, vol. 69, no. 9, pp. 1563-1573. https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsr208

APA

Russell, I., Aprahamian, M., Barry, J., Davidson, I., Fiske, P., Ibbotson, A., ... Todd, C. D. (2012). The influence of the freshwater environment and the biological characteristics of Atlantic salmon smolts on their subsequent marine survival. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69(9), 1563-1573. https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsr208

Vancouver

Russell I, Aprahamian M, Barry J, Davidson I, Fiske P, Ibbotson A et al. The influence of the freshwater environment and the biological characteristics of Atlantic salmon smolts on their subsequent marine survival. ICES Journal of Marine Science. 2012;69(9):1563-1573. https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsr208

Author

Russell, Ian ; Aprahamian, Miran ; Barry, Jon ; Davidson, Ian ; Fiske, Peder ; Ibbotson, Anton ; Kennedy, Richard ; Maclean, Julian ; Moore, Andrew ; Otero, Jaime ; Potter, Ted ; Todd, Christopher David. / The influence of the freshwater environment and the biological characteristics of Atlantic salmon smolts on their subsequent marine survival. In: ICES Journal of Marine Science. 2012 ; Vol. 69, No. 9. pp. 1563-1573.

Bibtex - Download

@article{e8085e387d2f472cafbaf80d288b6793,
title = "The influence of the freshwater environment and the biological characteristics of Atlantic salmon smolts on their subsequent marine survival",
abstract = "Atlantic salmon have declined markedly in the past 20-30 years throughout their range. Much of the focus for this decline has been on increased mortality during the marine phase of the life cycle. However, marine mortality does not operate independently of factors acting in freshwater and the biological characteristics of smolts migrating to sea. Over recent decades, juvenile salmon in many rivers have grown faster and migrated to sea at a younger age, and thus typically smaller. This has shortened the generation time for many individuals, and may dampen the impact of increased marine mortality, assuming expected higher in-river survival prior to smolting is not outweighed by increased mortality of smaller smolts at sea. Over the same period, smolt run-timing across the geographic range has been occurring earlier, at a rate of almost three days per decade, on average. This has given rise to growing concerns about smolts potentially missing the optimum environmental migration “window”, the timing of which may also be changing. Contaminants and other factors operating in freshwater also impact on smolt quality with adverse consequences for their physiological readiness for life at sea. Given that managers have very limited ability to influence the broad scale factors limiting salmon survival at sea, it is vital that freshwater habitats are managed to both maximise smolt output and to minimise the impact of factors acting in freshwater which may compromise salmon once they migrate to sea.",
keywords = "Atlantic salmon, Biological characteristics, Climate change, Freshwater, Marine survival, Smolts",
author = "Ian Russell and Miran Aprahamian and Jon Barry and Ian Davidson and Peder Fiske and Anton Ibbotson and Richard Kennedy and Julian Maclean and Andrew Moore and Jaime Otero and Ted Potter and Todd, {Christopher David}",
year = "2012",
doi = "10.1093/icesjms/fsr208",
language = "English",
volume = "69",
pages = "1563--1573",
journal = "ICES Journal of Marine Science",
issn = "1054-3139",
publisher = "OXFORD UNIV PRESS",
number = "9",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) - Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - The influence of the freshwater environment and the biological characteristics of Atlantic salmon smolts on their subsequent marine survival

AU - Russell, Ian

AU - Aprahamian, Miran

AU - Barry, Jon

AU - Davidson, Ian

AU - Fiske, Peder

AU - Ibbotson, Anton

AU - Kennedy, Richard

AU - Maclean, Julian

AU - Moore, Andrew

AU - Otero, Jaime

AU - Potter, Ted

AU - Todd, Christopher David

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - Atlantic salmon have declined markedly in the past 20-30 years throughout their range. Much of the focus for this decline has been on increased mortality during the marine phase of the life cycle. However, marine mortality does not operate independently of factors acting in freshwater and the biological characteristics of smolts migrating to sea. Over recent decades, juvenile salmon in many rivers have grown faster and migrated to sea at a younger age, and thus typically smaller. This has shortened the generation time for many individuals, and may dampen the impact of increased marine mortality, assuming expected higher in-river survival prior to smolting is not outweighed by increased mortality of smaller smolts at sea. Over the same period, smolt run-timing across the geographic range has been occurring earlier, at a rate of almost three days per decade, on average. This has given rise to growing concerns about smolts potentially missing the optimum environmental migration “window”, the timing of which may also be changing. Contaminants and other factors operating in freshwater also impact on smolt quality with adverse consequences for their physiological readiness for life at sea. Given that managers have very limited ability to influence the broad scale factors limiting salmon survival at sea, it is vital that freshwater habitats are managed to both maximise smolt output and to minimise the impact of factors acting in freshwater which may compromise salmon once they migrate to sea.

AB - Atlantic salmon have declined markedly in the past 20-30 years throughout their range. Much of the focus for this decline has been on increased mortality during the marine phase of the life cycle. However, marine mortality does not operate independently of factors acting in freshwater and the biological characteristics of smolts migrating to sea. Over recent decades, juvenile salmon in many rivers have grown faster and migrated to sea at a younger age, and thus typically smaller. This has shortened the generation time for many individuals, and may dampen the impact of increased marine mortality, assuming expected higher in-river survival prior to smolting is not outweighed by increased mortality of smaller smolts at sea. Over the same period, smolt run-timing across the geographic range has been occurring earlier, at a rate of almost three days per decade, on average. This has given rise to growing concerns about smolts potentially missing the optimum environmental migration “window”, the timing of which may also be changing. Contaminants and other factors operating in freshwater also impact on smolt quality with adverse consequences for their physiological readiness for life at sea. Given that managers have very limited ability to influence the broad scale factors limiting salmon survival at sea, it is vital that freshwater habitats are managed to both maximise smolt output and to minimise the impact of factors acting in freshwater which may compromise salmon once they migrate to sea.

KW - Atlantic salmon

KW - Biological characteristics

KW - Climate change

KW - Freshwater

KW - Marine survival

KW - Smolts

U2 - 10.1093/icesjms/fsr208

DO - 10.1093/icesjms/fsr208

M3 - Article

VL - 69

SP - 1563

EP - 1573

JO - ICES Journal of Marine Science

T2 - ICES Journal of Marine Science

JF - ICES Journal of Marine Science

SN - 1054-3139

IS - 9

ER -

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ID: 20557865