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The last Scottish Ice Sheet

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The last Scottish Ice Sheet. / Ballantyne, Colin K.; Small, David.

In: Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Vol. 110, No. 1-2, 03.2019, p. 93–131.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Harvard

Ballantyne, CK & Small, D 2019, 'The last Scottish Ice Sheet', Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, vol. 110, no. 1-2, pp. 93–131. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1755691018000038

APA

Ballantyne, C. K., & Small, D. (2019). The last Scottish Ice Sheet. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 110(1-2), 93–131. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1755691018000038

Vancouver

Ballantyne CK, Small D. The last Scottish Ice Sheet. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 2019 Mar;110(1-2):93–131. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1755691018000038

Author

Ballantyne, Colin K. ; Small, David. / The last Scottish Ice Sheet. In: Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 2019 ; Vol. 110, No. 1-2. pp. 93–131.

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@article{ed1043b2dd614ecfafe726f51ca7a3b0,
title = "The last Scottish Ice Sheet",
abstract = "The last Scottish Ice Sheet (SIS) expanded from a pre-existing ice cap after ∼35 ka. Highland ice dominated, with subsequent build-up of a Southern Uplands ice mass. The Outer Hebrides, Skye, Mull, the Cairngorms and Shetland supported persistent independent ice centres. Expansion was accompanied by ice-divide migration and switching flow directions. Ice nourished in Scotland reached the Atlantic Shelf break in some sectors but only mid-shelf in others, was confluent with the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet (FIS) in the North Sea Basin, extended into northern England, and fed the Irish Sea Ice Stream and a lobe that reached East Anglia. The timing of maximum extent was diachronous, from ∼30–27 ka on the Atlantic Shelf to ∼22–21 ka in Yorkshire. The SIS buried all mountains, but experienced periods of thickening alternating with drawdown driven by ice streams such as the Minch, the Hebrides and the Moray Firth Ice Streams. Submarine moraine banks indicate oscillating retreat and progressive decoupling of Highland ice from Orkney–Shetland ice. The pattern and timing of separation of the SIS and FIS in the North Sea Basin remain uncertain. Available evidence suggests that by ∼17 ka, much of the Sea of the Hebrides, the Outer Hebrides, Caithness and the coasts of E Scotland were deglaciated. By ∼16 ka, the Solway lowlands, Orkney and Shetland were deglaciated, the SIS and Irish Ice Sheet had separated, the ice margin lay along the western seaboard, nunataks had emerged in Wester Ross, the ice margin lay N of the Cairngorms and the sea had invaded the Tay and Forth estuaries. By ∼15 ka, most of the Southern Uplands, the Firth of Clyde, the Midland Valley and the upper Spey valley were deglaciated, and in NW Scotland ice was retreating from fjords and valleys. By the onset of rapid warming at ∼14.7 ka, much of the remnant SIS was confined within the limits of Younger Dryas glaciation. The SIS, therefore, lost most of its mass during the Dimlington Stade. It is uncertain whether fragments of the SIS persisted on high ground throughout the Lateglacial Interstade.",
keywords = "British–Irish Ice Sheet, Deglaciation, Dimlington Stade, Flowsets, Ice streams, Late Devensian, Lithostratigraphy, Radiocarbon dating, Readvances, Terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating",
author = "Ballantyne, {Colin K.} and David Small",
year = "2019",
month = mar,
doi = "10.1017/S1755691018000038",
language = "English",
volume = "110",
pages = "93–131",
journal = "Earth and Environmental Science Transactions Of The Royal Society Of Edinburgh",
issn = "1755-6910",
publisher = "Cambridge Univ. Press",
number = "1-2",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) - Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - The last Scottish Ice Sheet

AU - Ballantyne, Colin K.

AU - Small, David

PY - 2019/3

Y1 - 2019/3

N2 - The last Scottish Ice Sheet (SIS) expanded from a pre-existing ice cap after ∼35 ka. Highland ice dominated, with subsequent build-up of a Southern Uplands ice mass. The Outer Hebrides, Skye, Mull, the Cairngorms and Shetland supported persistent independent ice centres. Expansion was accompanied by ice-divide migration and switching flow directions. Ice nourished in Scotland reached the Atlantic Shelf break in some sectors but only mid-shelf in others, was confluent with the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet (FIS) in the North Sea Basin, extended into northern England, and fed the Irish Sea Ice Stream and a lobe that reached East Anglia. The timing of maximum extent was diachronous, from ∼30–27 ka on the Atlantic Shelf to ∼22–21 ka in Yorkshire. The SIS buried all mountains, but experienced periods of thickening alternating with drawdown driven by ice streams such as the Minch, the Hebrides and the Moray Firth Ice Streams. Submarine moraine banks indicate oscillating retreat and progressive decoupling of Highland ice from Orkney–Shetland ice. The pattern and timing of separation of the SIS and FIS in the North Sea Basin remain uncertain. Available evidence suggests that by ∼17 ka, much of the Sea of the Hebrides, the Outer Hebrides, Caithness and the coasts of E Scotland were deglaciated. By ∼16 ka, the Solway lowlands, Orkney and Shetland were deglaciated, the SIS and Irish Ice Sheet had separated, the ice margin lay along the western seaboard, nunataks had emerged in Wester Ross, the ice margin lay N of the Cairngorms and the sea had invaded the Tay and Forth estuaries. By ∼15 ka, most of the Southern Uplands, the Firth of Clyde, the Midland Valley and the upper Spey valley were deglaciated, and in NW Scotland ice was retreating from fjords and valleys. By the onset of rapid warming at ∼14.7 ka, much of the remnant SIS was confined within the limits of Younger Dryas glaciation. The SIS, therefore, lost most of its mass during the Dimlington Stade. It is uncertain whether fragments of the SIS persisted on high ground throughout the Lateglacial Interstade.

AB - The last Scottish Ice Sheet (SIS) expanded from a pre-existing ice cap after ∼35 ka. Highland ice dominated, with subsequent build-up of a Southern Uplands ice mass. The Outer Hebrides, Skye, Mull, the Cairngorms and Shetland supported persistent independent ice centres. Expansion was accompanied by ice-divide migration and switching flow directions. Ice nourished in Scotland reached the Atlantic Shelf break in some sectors but only mid-shelf in others, was confluent with the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet (FIS) in the North Sea Basin, extended into northern England, and fed the Irish Sea Ice Stream and a lobe that reached East Anglia. The timing of maximum extent was diachronous, from ∼30–27 ka on the Atlantic Shelf to ∼22–21 ka in Yorkshire. The SIS buried all mountains, but experienced periods of thickening alternating with drawdown driven by ice streams such as the Minch, the Hebrides and the Moray Firth Ice Streams. Submarine moraine banks indicate oscillating retreat and progressive decoupling of Highland ice from Orkney–Shetland ice. The pattern and timing of separation of the SIS and FIS in the North Sea Basin remain uncertain. Available evidence suggests that by ∼17 ka, much of the Sea of the Hebrides, the Outer Hebrides, Caithness and the coasts of E Scotland were deglaciated. By ∼16 ka, the Solway lowlands, Orkney and Shetland were deglaciated, the SIS and Irish Ice Sheet had separated, the ice margin lay along the western seaboard, nunataks had emerged in Wester Ross, the ice margin lay N of the Cairngorms and the sea had invaded the Tay and Forth estuaries. By ∼15 ka, most of the Southern Uplands, the Firth of Clyde, the Midland Valley and the upper Spey valley were deglaciated, and in NW Scotland ice was retreating from fjords and valleys. By the onset of rapid warming at ∼14.7 ka, much of the remnant SIS was confined within the limits of Younger Dryas glaciation. The SIS, therefore, lost most of its mass during the Dimlington Stade. It is uncertain whether fragments of the SIS persisted on high ground throughout the Lateglacial Interstade.

KW - British–Irish Ice Sheet

KW - Deglaciation

KW - Dimlington Stade

KW - Flowsets

KW - Ice streams

KW - Late Devensian

KW - Lithostratigraphy

KW - Radiocarbon dating

KW - Readvances

KW - Terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating

U2 - 10.1017/S1755691018000038

DO - 10.1017/S1755691018000038

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85047157677

VL - 110

SP - 93

EP - 131

JO - Earth and Environmental Science Transactions Of The Royal Society Of Edinburgh

JF - Earth and Environmental Science Transactions Of The Royal Society Of Edinburgh

SN - 1755-6910

IS - 1-2

ER -

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