Skip to content

Research at St Andrews

Three-dimensional observations of swarms of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) made using a multi-beam echosounder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Author(s)

Martin J. Cox, Joseph D. Warren, David A. Demer, George R. Cutter, Andrew Stuart Brierley

School/Research organisations

Abstract

Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) aggregate in dense swarms. Previous investigations of krill swarms have used conventional single- or split-beam echosounders that, with post-processing, provide a two-dimensional (2-D) view of the water column, leaving the third dimension to be inferred. We used a multi-beam echosounder system (SM20, 200 kHz, Kongsberg Mesotech Ltd, Canada) from an inflatable boat (length = 5.5 m) to sample water-column backscatter, particularly krill swarms, directly in 2-D and, with post-processing, to provide a three dimensional (3-D) view of entire krill swarms. The study took place over six days (2-8 February 2006) in the vicinity of Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica (62.4 degrees S, 60.7 degrees W). An automatic 3-D aggregation detection algorithm resolved 1006 krill swarms from the survey data. Principal component analyses indicated that swarm morphology metrics such as length, surface area and volume accounted for the largest between swarm variance, followed by echo energy, and finally swarm geographic location. Swarms did not form basic cylindrical or spherical shapes, but had quite consistent surface area to volume ratios of 3.3 m(-1). Swarms were spatially segregated, with larger sizes (mean north-south length = 276 m, at least double that of two other swarm classifications), found to the northwest of the survey area. The apparent clustering of swarm types suggests that krill biomass surveys and ecosystem investigations may require stratified survey design, in response to varying 3-D swarm morphology, variation that may be driven in turn by environmental characteristics such as bathymetry. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Close

Details

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)508-518
Number of pages11
JournalDeep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography
Volume57
Issue number7-8
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2010

    Research areas

  • Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, Pelagic, Multibeam echosounder, Swarm morphology, Three dimensions, Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, SOUTHERN-OCEAN, ACOUSTIC OBSERVATIONS, SARDINE SCHOOLS, SONAR, BEHAVIOR, IDENTIFICATION, AGGREGATIONS, ZOOPLANKTON, VARIABILITY, PREDATORS

Discover related content
Find related publications, people, projects and more using interactive charts.

View graph of relations

Related by author

  1. Spatial variability in total and organic mercury levels in Antarctic krill Euphausia superba across the Scotia Sea

    Seco, J., Xavier, J. C., Coelho, J. P., Pereira, B., Tarling, G., Pardal, M. A., Bustamante, P., Stowasser, G., Brierley, A. S. & Pereira, M. E. 14 Jan 2019 In : Environmental Pollution. 247, p. 332-339 8 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  2. Internal lee waves and baroclinic bores over a tropical seamount shark ‘hot-spot’

    Hosegood, P. J., Nimmo-Smith, W. A. M., Proud, R., Adams, K. & Brierley, A. S. 25 Jan 2019 In : Progress in Oceanography. 172, p. 34-50 17 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  3. From siphonophores to deep scattering layers: uncertainty ranges for the estimation of global mesopelagic fish biomass

    Proud, R., Handegard, N. O., Kloser, R., Cox, M. & Brierley, A. S. 19 Apr 2018 In : ICES Journal of Marine Science. Advance Article

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Related by journal

  1. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography (Journal)

    Miller, P. (Editor)
    2007 → …

    Activity: Publication peer-review and editorial workEditor of research journal

Related by journal

  1. Beluga whales in the western Beaufort Sea: current state of knowledge on timing, distribution, habitat use and environmental drivers

    Stafford, K. M., Ferguson, M. C., Hauser, D. D. W., Okkonen, S. R., Berchok, C. L., Citta, J. J., Clarke, J. T., Garland, E. C., Jones, J. & Suydam, R. S. Jun 2018 In : Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography. 152, p. 182-194

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  2. Distribution, abundance and habitat use of deep diving cetaceans in the North-East Atlantic

    Rogan, E., Cañadas, A., Macleod, K., Santos, M. B., Mikkelsen, B., Uriarte, A., Van Canneyt, O., Antonio Vázquez, J. & Hammond, P. S. Jul 2017 In : Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography. 141, p. 8-19

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  3. Estimating cetacean density and abundance in the Central and Western Mediterranean Sea through aerial surveys: implications for management

    Panigada, S., Lauriano, G., Donovan, G., Pierantonio, N., Cañadas, A., Vázquez, J. A. & Burt, L. Jul 2017 In : Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography. 141, p. 41-58 18 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  4. Grey and harbour seals in France: distribution at sea, connectivity and trends in abundance at haulout sites

    Vincent, C., Huon, M., Caurant, F., Dabin, W., Deniau, A., Dixneuf, S., Dupuis, L., Elder, J-F., Fremau, M-H., Hassani, S., Hemon, A., Karpouzopoulos, J., Lefeuvre, C., McConnell, B. J., Moss, S. E. W., Provost, P., Spitz, J., Turpin, Y. & Ridoux, V. Jul 2017 In : Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography. 141, p. 294-305

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  5. Harbour porpoise distribution can vary at small spatiotemporal scales in energetic habitats

    Benjamins, S., van Geel, N., Hastie, G., Elliott, J. & Wilson, B. Jul 2017 In : Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography. 141, p. 191-202 12 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

ID: 3424142