Skip to content

Research at St Andrews

Unusual, basin-scale, fluid-rock interaction in the Palaeoproterozoic Onega basin from Fennoscandia: preservation in calcite δ18O of an ancient high geothermal gradient

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Standard

Unusual, basin-scale, fluid-rock interaction in the Palaeoproterozoic Onega basin from Fennoscandia : preservation in calcite δ18O of an ancient high geothermal gradient. / Fallick, A. E.; Melezhik, V. A.; Brasier, A. T.; Prave, A. R.

In: Precambrian Research, Vol. 281, 08.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harvard

Fallick, AE, Melezhik, VA, Brasier, AT & Prave, AR 2016, 'Unusual, basin-scale, fluid-rock interaction in the Palaeoproterozoic Onega basin from Fennoscandia: preservation in calcite δ18O of an ancient high geothermal gradient' Precambrian Research, vol. 281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2016.06.001

APA

Fallick, A. E., Melezhik, V. A., Brasier, A. T., & Prave, A. R. (2016). Unusual, basin-scale, fluid-rock interaction in the Palaeoproterozoic Onega basin from Fennoscandia: preservation in calcite δ18O of an ancient high geothermal gradient. Precambrian Research, 281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2016.06.001

Vancouver

Fallick AE, Melezhik VA, Brasier AT, Prave AR. Unusual, basin-scale, fluid-rock interaction in the Palaeoproterozoic Onega basin from Fennoscandia: preservation in calcite δ18O of an ancient high geothermal gradient. Precambrian Research. 2016 Aug;281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2016.06.001

Author

Fallick, A. E. ; Melezhik, V. A. ; Brasier, A. T. ; Prave, A. R. / Unusual, basin-scale, fluid-rock interaction in the Palaeoproterozoic Onega basin from Fennoscandia : preservation in calcite δ18O of an ancient high geothermal gradient. In: Precambrian Research. 2016 ; Vol. 281.

Bibtex - Download

@article{5424dfdfb00f4101a79e46cac75126f6,
title = "Unusual, basin-scale, fluid-rock interaction in the Palaeoproterozoic Onega basin from Fennoscandia: preservation in calcite δ18O of an ancient high geothermal gradient",
abstract = "A variety of carbonates of different geneses, as indicated by petrography and geochemistry, are found throughout 400m of the volcano-sedimentary rocks of the Zaonega Formation of Palaeoproterozoic age in the Onega Basin of Fennoscandia. Following intensive sampling and analysis of varied calcites from drillcore recovered during the ICDP FAR-DEEP program, we report a highly unusual depth distribution of calcite oxygen isotope values (δ18Ocal). Unprecedentedly for such rocks, the δ18Ocal values over the full depth interval of 400m are strongly linearly correlated with depth (r2 = 0.9015, n=178). We propose that this is the result of major oxygen isotope resetting through water-rock interaction with a fluid of relatively constant oxygen isotopic composition (δ18Ow). In this model, the observed linear δ18Ocal-depth relationship is then a consequence of the increase in temperature with depth because of the background geothermal gradient. Minor deviations from the overall linear trend are likely due to bed-scale geological factors including locally high impermeability, and oxygen isotope modification of δ18Ow by comparatively intense water-rock interaction.Were the observed δ18Ocal values to have been reset during the greenschist facies Svecofennian metamorphism which affected the rocks at c. 1800Ma, the implied geothermal gradient of ∼ 560°C km-1 is geologically unreasonable and, accordingly, this hypothesis is ruled out. Rather, the δ18Ocal variation of 5‰ over 400m implies a near-surface depth for the rocks during fluid interaction, and this is consistent with a surface-derived origin of the infiltrating fluid (δ18Ow ∼ -13.6‰ for a surface temperature of 15°C and geothermal gradient of ∼ 52 °C km-1). It is speculated that the fluid accessed the carbonates from the basin edge by bed-parallel rather than cross-formational flow.There is an intriguing distribution of Na in the sedimentary rocks of the Zaonega Formation. Sodium is relatively abundant in rocks below a certain depth (the Lowermost Dolostone at ∼258m), but rare in shallower sequences. It is argued that this distribution did not originate with the basin-scale fluid-rock interaction documented above, but may rather be the result of evaporite dissolution, and subsequent redistribution of soluble elements during fluid flow associated with the syndepositional emplacement of basin-wide igneous rocks.",
keywords = "Palaeoproterozoic, Zaonega Formation, Geothermal gradient, Oxygen isotope, Carbonate diagenesis",
author = "Fallick, {A. E.} and Melezhik, {V. A.} and Brasier, {A. T.} and Prave, {A. R.}",
note = "The authors acknowledge financial support from ICDP for the drilling programme. AEF, ATB and ARP thank NERC for financial support through NE/G00398X/1. VAM, AEC, and AL thank the Norwegian Research Council for financial support through 191530/V30.",
year = "2016",
month = "8",
doi = "10.1016/j.precamres.2016.06.001",
language = "English",
volume = "281",
journal = "Precambrian Research",
issn = "0301-9268",
publisher = "Elsevier Science BV",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) - Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - Unusual, basin-scale, fluid-rock interaction in the Palaeoproterozoic Onega basin from Fennoscandia

T2 - Precambrian Research

AU - Fallick, A. E.

AU - Melezhik, V. A.

AU - Brasier, A. T.

AU - Prave, A. R.

N1 - The authors acknowledge financial support from ICDP for the drilling programme. AEF, ATB and ARP thank NERC for financial support through NE/G00398X/1. VAM, AEC, and AL thank the Norwegian Research Council for financial support through 191530/V30.

PY - 2016/8

Y1 - 2016/8

N2 - A variety of carbonates of different geneses, as indicated by petrography and geochemistry, are found throughout 400m of the volcano-sedimentary rocks of the Zaonega Formation of Palaeoproterozoic age in the Onega Basin of Fennoscandia. Following intensive sampling and analysis of varied calcites from drillcore recovered during the ICDP FAR-DEEP program, we report a highly unusual depth distribution of calcite oxygen isotope values (δ18Ocal). Unprecedentedly for such rocks, the δ18Ocal values over the full depth interval of 400m are strongly linearly correlated with depth (r2 = 0.9015, n=178). We propose that this is the result of major oxygen isotope resetting through water-rock interaction with a fluid of relatively constant oxygen isotopic composition (δ18Ow). In this model, the observed linear δ18Ocal-depth relationship is then a consequence of the increase in temperature with depth because of the background geothermal gradient. Minor deviations from the overall linear trend are likely due to bed-scale geological factors including locally high impermeability, and oxygen isotope modification of δ18Ow by comparatively intense water-rock interaction.Were the observed δ18Ocal values to have been reset during the greenschist facies Svecofennian metamorphism which affected the rocks at c. 1800Ma, the implied geothermal gradient of ∼ 560°C km-1 is geologically unreasonable and, accordingly, this hypothesis is ruled out. Rather, the δ18Ocal variation of 5‰ over 400m implies a near-surface depth for the rocks during fluid interaction, and this is consistent with a surface-derived origin of the infiltrating fluid (δ18Ow ∼ -13.6‰ for a surface temperature of 15°C and geothermal gradient of ∼ 52 °C km-1). It is speculated that the fluid accessed the carbonates from the basin edge by bed-parallel rather than cross-formational flow.There is an intriguing distribution of Na in the sedimentary rocks of the Zaonega Formation. Sodium is relatively abundant in rocks below a certain depth (the Lowermost Dolostone at ∼258m), but rare in shallower sequences. It is argued that this distribution did not originate with the basin-scale fluid-rock interaction documented above, but may rather be the result of evaporite dissolution, and subsequent redistribution of soluble elements during fluid flow associated with the syndepositional emplacement of basin-wide igneous rocks.

AB - A variety of carbonates of different geneses, as indicated by petrography and geochemistry, are found throughout 400m of the volcano-sedimentary rocks of the Zaonega Formation of Palaeoproterozoic age in the Onega Basin of Fennoscandia. Following intensive sampling and analysis of varied calcites from drillcore recovered during the ICDP FAR-DEEP program, we report a highly unusual depth distribution of calcite oxygen isotope values (δ18Ocal). Unprecedentedly for such rocks, the δ18Ocal values over the full depth interval of 400m are strongly linearly correlated with depth (r2 = 0.9015, n=178). We propose that this is the result of major oxygen isotope resetting through water-rock interaction with a fluid of relatively constant oxygen isotopic composition (δ18Ow). In this model, the observed linear δ18Ocal-depth relationship is then a consequence of the increase in temperature with depth because of the background geothermal gradient. Minor deviations from the overall linear trend are likely due to bed-scale geological factors including locally high impermeability, and oxygen isotope modification of δ18Ow by comparatively intense water-rock interaction.Were the observed δ18Ocal values to have been reset during the greenschist facies Svecofennian metamorphism which affected the rocks at c. 1800Ma, the implied geothermal gradient of ∼ 560°C km-1 is geologically unreasonable and, accordingly, this hypothesis is ruled out. Rather, the δ18Ocal variation of 5‰ over 400m implies a near-surface depth for the rocks during fluid interaction, and this is consistent with a surface-derived origin of the infiltrating fluid (δ18Ow ∼ -13.6‰ for a surface temperature of 15°C and geothermal gradient of ∼ 52 °C km-1). It is speculated that the fluid accessed the carbonates from the basin edge by bed-parallel rather than cross-formational flow.There is an intriguing distribution of Na in the sedimentary rocks of the Zaonega Formation. Sodium is relatively abundant in rocks below a certain depth (the Lowermost Dolostone at ∼258m), but rare in shallower sequences. It is argued that this distribution did not originate with the basin-scale fluid-rock interaction documented above, but may rather be the result of evaporite dissolution, and subsequent redistribution of soluble elements during fluid flow associated with the syndepositional emplacement of basin-wide igneous rocks.

KW - Palaeoproterozoic

KW - Zaonega Formation

KW - Geothermal gradient

KW - Oxygen isotope

KW - Carbonate diagenesis

U2 - 10.1016/j.precamres.2016.06.001

DO - 10.1016/j.precamres.2016.06.001

M3 - Article

VL - 281

JO - Precambrian Research

JF - Precambrian Research

SN - 0301-9268

ER -

Related by author

  1. 1.99 Ga mafic magmatism in the Rona terrane of the Lewisian Gneiss Complex in Scotland

    Baker, T. R., Prave, A. R. & Spencer, C. J., Aug 2019, In : Precambrian Research. 329, p. 224-231

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  2. Hydrothermal dedolomitisation of carbonate rocks of the Paleoproterozoic Zaonega Formation, NW Russia — Implications for the preservation of primary C isotope signals

    Kreitsmann, T., Külaviir, M., Lepland, A., Paiste, K., Paiste, P., Prave, A. R., Sepp, H., Romashkin, A. E., Rychanchik, D. V. & Kirsimäe, K., 5 May 2019, In : Chemical Geology. 512, p. 43-57 15 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  3. Crustal reworking and orogenic styles inferred from zircon Hf isotopes: Proterozoic examples from the North Atlantic region

    Spencer, C. J., Kirkland, C. L., Prave, A. R., Strachan, R. A. & Pease, V., Mar 2019, In : Geoscience Frontiers. 10, 2, p. 417-424

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  4. Evolution of the Mozambique Belt in Malawi constrained by granitoid U-Pb, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotopic data

    Manda, B. W. C., Cawood, P. A., Spencer, C. J., Prave, T., Robinson, R. & Roberts, N. M. W., 29 Nov 2018, In : Gondwana Research. In press

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Related by journal

  1. 1.99 Ga mafic magmatism in the Rona terrane of the Lewisian Gneiss Complex in Scotland

    Baker, T. R., Prave, A. R. & Spencer, C. J., Aug 2019, In : Precambrian Research. 329, p. 224-231

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  2. Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic K-rich granites in the Phan Si Pan Complex, north Vietnam: constraints on the early crustal evolution of the Yangtze Block

    Zhao, T., Cawood, P. A., Wang, K., Zi, J-W., Feng, Q., Nguyen, Q. M. & Tran, D. M., 24 Jul 2019, In : Precambrian Research. 332, 105395.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  3. A refined late-Cryogenian – Ediacaran Earth history of South China: phosphorous-rich marbles of the Dabie and Sulu orogens

    Prave, A. R., Meng, F., Lepland, A., Kirsmäe, K., Kreitsmann, T. & Jiang, C. Z., Feb 2018, In : Precambrian Research. 305, p. 166-176

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  4. Environmental control on microbial diversification and methane production in the Mesoarchean

    Stueeken, E. E. & Buick, R., Jan 2018, In : Precambrian Research. 304, p. 64-72

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

ID: 243265269