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Whole-genome sequencing of a quarter-century melioidosis outbreak in temperate Australia uncovers a region of low-prevalence endemicity

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Whole-genome sequencing of a quarter-century melioidosis outbreak in temperate Australia uncovers a region of low-prevalence endemicity. / Chapple, Stephanie N. J.; Sarovich, Derek S.; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Peacock, Sharon J.; Buller, Nicky; Golledge, Clayton; Currie, Bart J; Mayo, Mark; Price, Erin P.

In: Microbial Genomics, Vol. 2, No. 7, 11.07.2016.

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Chapple, SNJ, Sarovich, DS, Holden, MTG, Peacock, SJ, Buller, N, Golledge, C, Currie, BJ, Mayo, M & Price, EP 2016, 'Whole-genome sequencing of a quarter-century melioidosis outbreak in temperate Australia uncovers a region of low-prevalence endemicity', Microbial Genomics, vol. 2, no. 7. https://doi.org/10.1099/mgen.0.000067

APA

Chapple, S. N. J., Sarovich, D. S., Holden, M. T. G., Peacock, S. J., Buller, N., Golledge, C., ... Price, E. P. (2016). Whole-genome sequencing of a quarter-century melioidosis outbreak in temperate Australia uncovers a region of low-prevalence endemicity. Microbial Genomics, 2(7). https://doi.org/10.1099/mgen.0.000067

Vancouver

Chapple SNJ, Sarovich DS, Holden MTG, Peacock SJ, Buller N, Golledge C et al. Whole-genome sequencing of a quarter-century melioidosis outbreak in temperate Australia uncovers a region of low-prevalence endemicity. Microbial Genomics. 2016 Jul 11;2(7). https://doi.org/10.1099/mgen.0.000067

Author

Chapple, Stephanie N. J. ; Sarovich, Derek S. ; Holden, Matthew T. G. ; Peacock, Sharon J. ; Buller, Nicky ; Golledge, Clayton ; Currie, Bart J ; Mayo, Mark ; Price, Erin P. / Whole-genome sequencing of a quarter-century melioidosis outbreak in temperate Australia uncovers a region of low-prevalence endemicity. In: Microbial Genomics. 2016 ; Vol. 2, No. 7.

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@article{2762225bff6d4d48a806e7fba8026595,
title = "Whole-genome sequencing of a quarter-century melioidosis outbreak in temperate Australia uncovers a region of low-prevalence endemicity",
abstract = "Melioidosis, caused by the highly recombinogenic bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a disease with high mortality. Tracing the origin of melioidosis outbreaks and understanding how the bacterium spreads and persists in the environment are essential to protecting public and veterinary health and reducing mortality associated with outbreaks. We used whole-genome sequencing to compare isolates from a historical quarter-century outbreak that occurred between 1966 and 1991 in the Avon Valley, Western Australia, a region far outside the known range of B. pseudomallei endemicity. All Avon Valley outbreak isolates shared the same multilocus sequence type (ST-284), which has not been identified outside this region. We found substantial genetic diversity among isolates based on a comparison of genome-wide variants, with no clear correlation between genotypes and temporal, geographical or source data. We observed little evidence of recombination in the outbreak strains, indicating that genetic diversity among these isolates has primarily accrued by mutation. Phylogenomic analysis demonstrated that the isolates confidently grouped within the Australian B. pseudomallei clade, thereby ruling out introduction from a melioidosis-endemic region outside Australia. Collectively, our results point to B. pseudomallei ST-284 being present in the Avon Valley for longer than previously recognized, with its persistence and genomic diversity suggesting long-term, low-prevalence endemicity in this temperate region. Our findings provide a concerning demonstration of the potential for environmental persistence of B. pseudomallei far outside the conventional endemic regions. An expected increase in extreme weather events may reactivate latent B. pseudomallei populations in this region.",
keywords = "Australia , Evolution, Melioidosis, Endemicity, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Temperate",
author = "Chapple, {Stephanie N. J.} and Sarovich, {Derek S.} and Holden, {Matthew T. G.} and Peacock, {Sharon J.} and Nicky Buller and Clayton Golledge and Currie, {Bart J} and Mark Mayo and Price, {Erin P.}",
note = "This study was funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council via awards 1046812 and 1098337, and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute via award 098051. S.J.P. receives funding from the NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre.",
year = "2016",
month = "7",
day = "11",
doi = "10.1099/mgen.0.000067",
language = "English",
volume = "2",
journal = "Microbial Genomics",
issn = "2057-5858",
publisher = "Microbiology Society",
number = "7",

}

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Whole-genome sequencing of a quarter-century melioidosis outbreak in temperate Australia uncovers a region of low-prevalence endemicity

AU - Chapple, Stephanie N. J.

AU - Sarovich, Derek S.

AU - Holden, Matthew T. G.

AU - Peacock, Sharon J.

AU - Buller, Nicky

AU - Golledge, Clayton

AU - Currie, Bart J

AU - Mayo, Mark

AU - Price, Erin P.

N1 - This study was funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council via awards 1046812 and 1098337, and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute via award 098051. S.J.P. receives funding from the NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre.

PY - 2016/7/11

Y1 - 2016/7/11

N2 - Melioidosis, caused by the highly recombinogenic bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a disease with high mortality. Tracing the origin of melioidosis outbreaks and understanding how the bacterium spreads and persists in the environment are essential to protecting public and veterinary health and reducing mortality associated with outbreaks. We used whole-genome sequencing to compare isolates from a historical quarter-century outbreak that occurred between 1966 and 1991 in the Avon Valley, Western Australia, a region far outside the known range of B. pseudomallei endemicity. All Avon Valley outbreak isolates shared the same multilocus sequence type (ST-284), which has not been identified outside this region. We found substantial genetic diversity among isolates based on a comparison of genome-wide variants, with no clear correlation between genotypes and temporal, geographical or source data. We observed little evidence of recombination in the outbreak strains, indicating that genetic diversity among these isolates has primarily accrued by mutation. Phylogenomic analysis demonstrated that the isolates confidently grouped within the Australian B. pseudomallei clade, thereby ruling out introduction from a melioidosis-endemic region outside Australia. Collectively, our results point to B. pseudomallei ST-284 being present in the Avon Valley for longer than previously recognized, with its persistence and genomic diversity suggesting long-term, low-prevalence endemicity in this temperate region. Our findings provide a concerning demonstration of the potential for environmental persistence of B. pseudomallei far outside the conventional endemic regions. An expected increase in extreme weather events may reactivate latent B. pseudomallei populations in this region.

AB - Melioidosis, caused by the highly recombinogenic bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a disease with high mortality. Tracing the origin of melioidosis outbreaks and understanding how the bacterium spreads and persists in the environment are essential to protecting public and veterinary health and reducing mortality associated with outbreaks. We used whole-genome sequencing to compare isolates from a historical quarter-century outbreak that occurred between 1966 and 1991 in the Avon Valley, Western Australia, a region far outside the known range of B. pseudomallei endemicity. All Avon Valley outbreak isolates shared the same multilocus sequence type (ST-284), which has not been identified outside this region. We found substantial genetic diversity among isolates based on a comparison of genome-wide variants, with no clear correlation between genotypes and temporal, geographical or source data. We observed little evidence of recombination in the outbreak strains, indicating that genetic diversity among these isolates has primarily accrued by mutation. Phylogenomic analysis demonstrated that the isolates confidently grouped within the Australian B. pseudomallei clade, thereby ruling out introduction from a melioidosis-endemic region outside Australia. Collectively, our results point to B. pseudomallei ST-284 being present in the Avon Valley for longer than previously recognized, with its persistence and genomic diversity suggesting long-term, low-prevalence endemicity in this temperate region. Our findings provide a concerning demonstration of the potential for environmental persistence of B. pseudomallei far outside the conventional endemic regions. An expected increase in extreme weather events may reactivate latent B. pseudomallei populations in this region.

KW - Australia

KW - Evolution

KW - Melioidosis

KW - Endemicity

KW - Burkholderia pseudomallei

KW - Temperate

U2 - 10.1099/mgen.0.000067

DO - 10.1099/mgen.0.000067

M3 - Article

VL - 2

JO - Microbial Genomics

JF - Microbial Genomics

SN - 2057-5858

IS - 7

ER -

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